General Thomas J. Jackson's Official Report for the Battle of First Manassas
HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE,
near Manassas, Va., July 23, 1861.
MAJOR: I have the honor
to submit the following report of the operations of my brigade on the 21st.
About 4 in the morning
I received notice from General Longstreet that he needed a re-enforcement of two regiments, which were accordingly ordered.
Subsequently I received an order from General Beauregard to move to the support of General Bonham,
afterwards to support General Cocke, and finally to take such position as would enable me to re-enforce either, as circumstances
Whilst in the position last indicated I received a request from General Cocke to guard
the stone bridge, and immediately moved forward to effect the object in view.
that General Bee, who was on the left of our line, was hard pressed, I marched to his assistance, notifying him at the same
time that I was advancing to his support; but, before arriving within cannon range of the enemy, I met General Bee's forces
falling back. I continued to advance with the understanding that he would form in my rear. His battery, under its dauntless
commander, Captain Imboden, reversed and advanced with my brigade.
The first favorable position for
meeting the enemy was at the next summit, where, at 11.30 a.m., I posted Captain Imboden's battery and two pieces of Captain
Stanard's, so as to play upon the advancing foe. The Fourth Regiment, commanded by Col. James F. Preston, and the Twenty-seventh
Regiment, commanded by Lieut. Col. John Echols, were posted in rear of the batteries; the Fifth Regiment, commanded by Col.
Kenton Harper, was posted on the right of the batteries; the Second Regiment, commanded by Col. James W. Allen, on the left,
and the Thirty-third, commanded by Col. A. C. Cummings, on his left. I also ordered forward the other two pieces of Captain
Stanard's and all those of Colonel Pendleton's battery. They, as well as the battery under Lieutenant Pelham, came into action
on the same line as the others; and nobly did the artillery maintain its position for hours against the enemy's advancing
thousands. Great praise is due to Colonel Pendleton and the other officers and men.
my flanks should be turned, I sent an order to Colonels Stuart and Radford, of the cavalry, to secure them. Colonel Stuart
and that part of his command with him deserve great praise for the promptness with which they moved to my left and secured
the flank by timely charging the enemy and driving him back.
General Bee, with his rallied troops,
soon marched to my support and as re-enforcements continued to arrive General Beauregard posted them so as to strengthen the
flanks of my brigade. The enemy not being able to force our lines by a direct fire of artillery, inclined part of his batteries
to the right, so as to obtain an oblique fire; but in doing so exposed his pieces to a more destructive fire from our artillery,
and one of his batteries was thrown so near to Colonel Cummings that it fell into his hands in consequence of his having made
a gallant charge on it with his regiment; but owing to a destructive small-arm fire from the enemy he was forced to abandon
it. At 3.30 p.m. the advance of the enemy having reached a position which called for the use of the bayonet, I gave the command
for the charge of the more than brave Fourth and Twenty-seventh, and, under commanders worthy of such regiments, they, in
the order in which they were posted, rushed forward obliquely to the left of our batteries, and through the blessing of God,
who gave us the victory, pierced the enemy's center, and by co-operating with the victorious Fifth and other forces soon placed
the field essentially in our possession.
About the time that Colonel Preston passed our artillery the
heroic Lieutenant-Colonel Lackland, of the Second Regiment, followed by the highly meritorious right of the Second, took possession
of and endeavored to remove from the field the battery which Colonel Cummings had previously been forced to abandon; but after
removing one of the pieces some distance was also forced by the enemy's fire to abandon it.
in connection with other troops, took seven field pieces in addition to the battery captured by Colonel Cummings. The enemy,
though repulsed in the center, succeeded in turning our flanks. But their batteries having been disabled by our fire, and
also abandoned by reason of the infantry charges, the victory was soon completed by the fire of small-arms and occasional
shots from a part of our artillery, which I posted on the next crest in rear.
By direction of General
Johnston I assumed the command of all the remaining artillery and infantry of the Army near the Lewis house, to act as circumstances
might require. Part of this artillery fired on the retreating enemy. The colors of the First Michigan Regiment and an artillery
flag were captured--the first by the Twenty-seventh Regiment and the other by the Fourth.
F. B. Jones, acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieut. T. G. Lee, aide-de-camp, and Lieut. A. S. Pendleton, brigade ordnance
officer, and Capt. Thomas Marshall, volunteer aide, rendered valuable service. Cadets J. W. Thompson and N. W. Lee, also volunteer
aides, merit special praise. Dr. Hunter H. McGuire has proved himself to be eminently qualified for his position--that of
medical director of the brigade. Capt. Thomas L. Preston, though not of my command, rendered valuable service during the action.
It is with pain that I have to report as killed 11 officers, 14 non-commissioned officers, and 86 privates;
wounded, 22 officers, 27 non-commissioned officers, and 319 privates; and missing, I officer and 4 privates.
I respectfully call attention to the accompanying reports of the commanders of the regiments and battery composing this brigade.
Your most obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Provisional Army, Confederate States.