William Tecumseh Sherman
(February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. He served as a General
in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–65), for which he received recognition for his outstanding command
of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting
total war against the Confederate States. Some military historians state that Sherman was "the first modern general".
Sherman served under General
Ulysses S. Grant in 1862 and 1863 during the campaigns that led to the fall of the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg on
the Mississippi River and culminated with the routing of the Confederate armies in the state of Tennessee. In 1864, Sherman
succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the western theater of the war. He proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of
the city of Atlanta, a military success that contributed to the re-election of President Abraham Lincoln. Sherman's subsequent
march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacy's ability to continue fighting. He accepted the
surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida in April 1865.
When Grant assumed the
U.S. presidency in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as Commanding General of the United States Army (1869–83). Sherman, subsequently, was
responsible for the U.S. Army's engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years, in the western United States. He steadfastly
refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil