Third Battle of Winchester / Opequon Creek Virginia
Battle of Opequon (3rd Battle of Winchester)
Other Names: Third Battle of Winchester
Location: Frederick County
Campaign: Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign (August-October
1864); 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaigns
Date(s): September 19, 1864
Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Lt. Gen.
Jubal A. Early [CS]
Forces Engaged: 54,440 total (US 39,240; CS 15,200)
Estimated Casualties: 8,630 total (US 5,020; CS 3,610)
Result(s): Union victory
|3rd Battle of Winchester Civil War Map
|(Click to Enlarge)
Description: After Kershaw's Division left Winchester to rejoin Lee’s army at Petersburg, Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early renewed his raids on the B&O Railroad at Martinsburg, badly dispersing his four remaining infantry
divisions. On September 19, Sheridan advanced toward Winchester along the Berryville Pike with the VI and XIX Corps, crossing
Opequon Creek. The Union advance was delayed long enough for Early to concentrate his forces to meet the main assault, which
continued for several hours. Casualties were very heavy. The Confederate line was gradually driven back toward the town. Mid-afternoon,
Crook’s (VIII) Corps and the cavalry turned the Confederate left flank. Early, however, ordered a general retreat.
Confederate generals Rodes and Goodwin were killed, Fitzhugh Lee, Terry, Johnson, and Wharton wounded. Union general Russell
was killed, McIntosh, Upton, and Chapman wounded. Because of its size, intensity, and result, many historians consider this
the most important conflict of the Shenandoah Valley. (See Third Battle of Winchester: Detailed History and Maps.)
LIST OF REBEL OFFICERS CAPTURED AT THE BATTLE OF OPEQUON CREEK (3rd BATTLE OF WINCHESTER), SEPTEMBER
CAPTURED CONFEDERATE OFFICERS AS POSTED IN THE NORFOLK, VIRGINIA, NEWSPAPER
"THE NEW REGIME" 1864
The newspaper was microfilmed white on black background and was difficult to read. Some
initials may be wrong because of that, but I have tried my best to copy it. Submitted by Gene Williams.
COL. R. T.
BENNETT, 14TH NORTH CAROLINA.
1st LIEUT. N.B. FERRY, 51st VA.
1st LIEUT J.J. PORTER, 13TH VA
LIEUT J.A. JOHNst ON, 45TH VA
CAPT Z.T. ROSS, 13TH VIRGINIA.
CAPT. H.W. WINGFIELD, 58TH VA.
LIEUT COL H. W.
CECKLEY, 44TH VA.
1st LIEUT J.E. WILLS, 51st VA.
2d LIEUT R.I. WALDRON, 58TH VA.
CAPT. F.M. WRIGHT, 58TH
W.R. GILLETT, 52d VA
2nd LIEUT J.A.T. GROSSELOSE, 51st VA.
1st LIEUT WM. R. FISHER, 45TH VA.
H.C. GROSSELOSE, 36TH VA.
CAPT C. BAUMGARDNER, 45TH VA.
2d LIEUT P.P. PECK, 26TH VA.
2d LIEUT N.C. REPASS, 51st
1st LIEUT W.P. HOWARD, 51st VA.
3d LT. A. D. GROSSELOSE 51st VA.
2nd LIEUT JK.L.
VASS, 36TH VA.
2nd LIEUT G.A. McGEE, 36TH VA.
2nd LIEUT E. BLACK, 36TH VA.
2nd LIEUT M. M. HINES, 36TH VA.
I.T. HOOPER 21st GA.
LIEUT COL. G.M. EDGAR, 25TH VA.
2d LIEUT L.B. DUNN, 26TH VA
2d LIEUT J.J. GATLING, 5TH
1st LIEUT J.B. SAMUELS, 10TH VA
2d LIEUT A.B. KELLER, 23d VA
2d LIEUT. J.R. COX, 45TH VA.
W. A. BIDDICK, 5TH N.C.
1st LIEUT J.D. IRWIN, 20TH N.C.
CAPT D. BENNER, 26TH VA
2d LIEUT W. A. BIDDICK,
1st LIEUT J.D. IRWIN, 20TH N.C.
CAPT D. BENNER, 26TH VA
2d LIEUT J.N. HANNA, 52d VA.
LIEUT C.T. GILLESPY, 45TH VA
2st LIEUT J.O. MAXWELL, 45TH VA.
3d LIEUT B.S. HICKS, 45TH VA.
M.G. WEBB, 45TH N.C.
2d LIEUT J.C. SPANLER, 46TH VA.
3d LIEUT A.A. COX, 26TH VA.
3d LIEUT S.C. McNEIL 46TH VA.
LIEUT J.S. PERRY, 45TH VA.
3d LIEUT J. HUDSON, 45TH VA.
CAPT. F.M. PERRY, 23d VA.
2d LIEUT. J. O. BUCHANAN, 23d VA.
LIEUT L.S. CAMPBELL, 23d VA
3d LIEUT D.F. BARNS 23d VA
2d LIEUT B.L. WATSON, 5TH N.C.
2d LIEUT H.H. SMITH, 5TH N.C.
LIEUT S.J. SKELTON, 28d VA
2d LIEUT J.J. HIGGINS, 60TH gA
1st LIEUT O.C. LIPSCOMB, , 52nd VA
2d LT. C.M. CAMPTON,
2d LT J.B. PECK, 26TH VA
2d LT A SUERTAUGH, 6OTH VA
LT COL G.A. GOODMAN, 16TH VA
LIEUT B.F. CURTRIGHT, 13TH GA
2d LT J.K. KINMAN, 12TH GA
CAPT J.N. SHANLAIN, 60TH VA
1st LIEUT A.B. SYDENst RICKER,
CAPT L.A. VAWLER, 30TH VA.
1st LIEUT J. A. DOUGLAS 30TH vA
CAPT E.H. LYON, 23d N.C.
CAPT. J. GOLLABAN,
1st LIEUT J.R. BLACKWOOD, 45TH VA,
2d LIEUT J.T. JAMES, 23Nd VA
3d LIEUT B.F. COLE, 23d VA
LIEUT J.M. SCOTT, 23d VA
1st LIEUT J.F. HARRISON, 23d VA.
LIEUT COL. J.A. McKAMY, THOMAS' LEGION [Camp Morton: alive in January 1865]
CAPT J.M. SINGLETON, THOMAS'
LEGION [Took "Oath of Allegiance" on June 17, 1865]
2d LIEUT L.R. YOUNG THOMAS' LEGION
MAJ. W.S. ROWAN, 60TH
CAPT J.W. JOHNSON, 60TH VA
1st . LIEUT C.H. ACTON, 60TH VA
2nd LIEUT WILLIAM ADAIR, 30TH VA
5d LIEUT J.INGRAM
2st LIEUT H.M.WARREN, 4TH N.C.
2d LT. T. M. C. DAVIDSON, 4TH N.C.
CAPT N.H. CHADWICK, 2d N.C.
LT. T.W. LUFTWICK, 36TH VA
2d LT M.D. STONE, 36TH VA
2d J.A. BURNETT, 51 st . VA
2d LT. J.A. HALL, 53d N.C.
LT. J.N. SCOTT, do.
3d LT. C.P. NICKELL, 26TH VA
2d LT N.H. BAILY, 22Nd VA
3d LT C.P. NICKELL, 26TH VA
LT N.H. BAILY, 22Nd vA
3D. LT. J.D. MILLER, 22Nd VA
2d LT J.F. CAMPELL, do.
3d LT S.F. COUUIS, do,
NELLIGAN, 1st LOUSIANA INFANTRY,
LIEUT COL. C. DERMIT, 23d VA INFANTRY
LT. COL. EDGAR, EDGAR'S BATTALION
Transcribed by Gene Williams
Sources: National Park Service; Official Records of the Union and
So Far from Dixie: Confederates in Yankee Prisons (Hardcover: 312 pages).
Description: This book is the gripping history of five
men who were sent to Elmira, New York's infamous POW camp, and survived to document
their stories. You will hear and even envision the most stirring and gripping true stories of each soldier that lived
and survived the most horrible nightmares of the conflict while tortured and even starved as "THE PRISONER OF WAR."
Reading: From Winchester to Cedar Creek:
The Shenandoah Campaign of 1864. Amazon.com
Review: Virginia's Shenandoah
Valley was a crucial avenue for Confederate armies intending to invade Northern states during the Civil
War. Running southwest to northeast, it "pointed, like a giant's lance, at the Union's heart, Washington, D.C.,"
writes Jeffry Wert. It was also "the granary of the Confederacy," supplying the food for much of Virginia. Both sides long
understood its strategic importance, but not until the fall of 1864 did Union troops led by Napoleon-sized cavalry General
Phil Sheridan (5'3", 120 lbs.) finally seize it for good. He defeated Confederate General Jubal Early at four key battles
that autumn. Continued below…
to a narrative of the campaign (featuring dozens of characters, including General George Custer and future president Rutherford
B. Hayes), this book is a study of command. Both Sheridan
and Early were capable military leaders, though each had flaws. Sheridan tended to make mistakes before battles, Early during them.
Wert considers Early the better general, but admits that few could match the real-time decision-making and leadership skills
once the bullets started flying: "When Little Phil rode onto the battlefield, he entered his element." Early was a bold fighter,
but lacked the skills necessary to make up for his disadvantage in manpower. At Cedar Creek, the climactic battle of the 1864
Shenandoah campaign, Early "executed a masterful offensive against a numerically superior opponent, only to watch it result
in ruin." With more Confederate troops on the scene, history might have been different. Wert relates the facts of what actually
happened with his customary clarity and insightful analysis.
Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864 (Military Campaigns of the Civil War) (416 pages) (The University of North
Carolina Press). Description: The 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign
is generally regarded as one of the most important Civil War campaigns; it lasted more than four arduous months and claimed
more than 25,000 casualties. The massive armies of Generals Philip H. Sheridan and Jubal A. Early had contended for immense
stakes... Beyond the agricultural bounty and the boost in morale to be gained with its numerous battles, events in the Valley
would affect Abraham Lincoln's chances for reelection in November 1864. Continued below...
essays in this volume reexamine common assumptions about the campaign, its major figures, and its significance. Taking advantage
of the most recent scholarship and a wide range of primary sources, contributors examine strategy and tactics, the performances
of key commanders on each side, the campaign's political repercussions, and the experiences of civilians caught in the path
of the armies. The authors do not always agree with one another, but, taken together, their essays highlight important connections
between the home front and the battlefield, as well as ways in which military affairs, civilian experiences, and politics
played off one another during the campaign.
Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864 (McFarland & Company). Description: A
significant part of the Civil War was fought in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, especially in 1864. Books and articles
have been written about the fighting that took place there, but they generally cover only a small period of time and focus
on a particular battle or campaign. Continued below...
This work covers the entire year
of 1864 so that readers can clearly see how one event led to another in the Shenandoah Valley and turned once-peaceful garden spots into gory battlefields. It tells
the stories of the great leaders, ordinary men, innocent civilians, and armies large and small taking part in battles at New
Market, Chambersburg, Winchester, Fisher’s Hill and Cedar Creek, but it primarily tells
the stories of the soldiers, Union and Confederate, who were willing to risk their lives
for their beliefs. The author has made extensive use of memoirs, letters and reports written by the soldiers of both sides
who fought in the Shenandoah Valley in 1864.
Reading: Field Armies and Fortifications in the Civil War: The Eastern Campaigns, 1861-1864 (Civil War America)
(Hardcover). Description: The eastern campaigns of the Civil War involved the widespread
use of field fortifications, from Big Bethel and the Peninsula to Chancellorsville, Gettysburg,
Charleston, and Mine Run. While many of these fortifications
were meant to last only as long as the battle, Earl J. Hess argues that their history is deeply significant. The Civil War
saw more use of fieldworks than did any previous conflict in Western history. Hess studies the use of fortifications by tracing
the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia from April 1861
to April 1864. He considers the role of field fortifications in the defense of cities, river crossings, and railroads and
in numerous battles. Continued below...
Blending technical aspects of construction with operational history, Hess demonstrates the crucial role
these earthworks played in the success or failure of field armies. He also argues that the development of trench warfare in
1864 resulted from the shock of battle and the continued presence of the enemy within striking distance, not simply from the
use of the rifle-musket, as historians have previously asserted. Based on fieldwork at 300 battle sites and extensive research in official reports, letters, diaries, and archaeological
studies, this book should become an indispensable reference for Civil War historians.
Reading: Reveille in Washington, 1860 - 1865. Description: Winner of the 1942 Pulitzer
Prize in History, it is an authentic, scholarly description of life in Washington
during the Civil War, written in a highly readable style. The "star" of the book is, indeed, the city of Washington D.C. Many players walk across the D.C. stage, and Leech's research paints
vivid portraits not seen before about the Lincolns, Walt Whitman, Andrew Carnegie, Winfield Scott, John Wilkes Booth, and
many others. Continued below...
It's the "Capitol" that you have never really seen or heard that much about… It's a scrappy,
dusty, muddy, unfinished city, begging for respect. Washington City,
as it was called then, was both a respite for Union soldiers, as well as the Union Army’s “prostitution headquarters.”
From the so-called 'highlife to the lowlife', the politician to the pauper, all receive their respectful, or rightful, place
in this delightful but candid prose.