Battle of Monroe's Crossroads: Confederate Order of Battle

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Battle of Monroe's Crossroads:
Confederate Order of Battle

Confederate Forces
GEN Joseph E. Johnston

In early March 1865, General Joseph E. Johnston’s force had yet to assemble. Many units, including portions of the Army of Tennessee, were still in route. The only organized Confederate forces in the area of operations were Hardee’s Infantry Corps, and Wheeler’s and Butler’s Cavalry. By order of the Confederate government, LTG Wade Hampton was to assume command of Wheeler’s Corps and Butler’s Division. On the 8th of March, Wheeler’s and Butler’s Cavalry united and "Hampton’s Cavalry Command"was established.

Hardee’s Corps
Strength — Approximately 8,OOO men
Taliaferro’s Division
BG William B. Taliaferro
McLaws’ Division
MG LaFayette McLaws
Hampton’s Cavalry Command
LTG Wade Hampton
Wheeler’s Corps
LTG Joseph Wheeler
Strength — Approximately 4,600 men
Humes’ Division
BG W.Y.C. Humes (WIA)

Allen’s Division
BG William W. Allen (*

Harrison’s Texas Brigade
BG Thomas Harrison (WIA)
Hagan’s Alabama Brigade
COL James Hagan (WIA)
8th Texas Regiment 1st Alabama Regiment
COL David T. Blakely
11th Texas Regiment 3rd Alabama Regiment
MAJ John D. Farish (WIA)
3rd Arkansas Regiment
MAJ William H. Blackwell
9th Alabama Regiment
COL John C. Malone, Jr.
4th/8th Tennessee Regiment
LTC Paul F. Anderson
12th Alabama Regiment
COL Wren S. Reese
  51st Alabama Regiment (Partisan Rangers)
COL Milton L. Kirkpatrick
  53rd Alabama Regiment (Partisan Rangers)
COL Moses W. Hannon (WIA)
  10th Confederate (GA., ALA. Companies)
COL William J. Vason
Ashby’s Brigade
COL Henry M. Ashby (*
Anderson’s Brigade
BG Robert H. Anderson
1st/6th Tennessee Regiment
COL Jacob B. Biffle
3rd Georgia Regiment
2nd Tennessee Regiment
COL John H. Kuhn
5th Georgia Regiment
5th Tennessee Regiment
COL George W. McKenzie
6th Georgia Regiment
COL Edward Bird
  8th Confederate
(ALA., MISS. Companies)
LTC John S. Prather
Dibrell’s Brigade
BG George G. Dibrell
Shannon’s Special Scouts
CPT A.M. Shannon
(Shannon’s Scouts numbered 30 to 40 hand-picked men from throughout the Corps.)
Allison’s Squadron (Hamilton’s Battalion & Shaw’s Battalion)
COL Robert D. Allison
13th Tennessee Regiment
COL Mounce L. Gore
(Serving as Corps reserve, Dibrell also collected late arriving units.)
Butler’s Division
MG Matthew C. Butler
Strength — Approximately 1,200 men
Butler’s Brigade
BG E.M. Law
Young’s Brigade
COL Gilbert J. Wright
1st South Carolina Regiment Phillips’ Georgia Legion
MAJ W.W. Thomas
4th South Carolina Regiment Cobb’s Georgia Legion
LTC J.S. King (KIA)
5th South Carolina Regiment
6th South Carolina Regiment Jeff Davis Mississippi Legion
(MISS., GA., ALA. Companies)
MAJ Ivey F. Lewis (WIA)
19th South Carolina Battalion
  20th Georgia Battalion
  2nd Kentucky Regiment
Reacting to rapidly changing circumstances, the Confederate Cavalry task organized often. The units contained in the order of battle participated in the battle. The following units may have participated, been on other missions, or arrived late.
1st Georgia Regiment 2nd Alabama Regiment 1st Kentucky Regiment
2nd Georgia Regiment 24th Alabama Battalion 3rd Kentucky Regiment
4th Georgia Regiment 9th Tennessee Battalion 9th Kentucky Regiment
10th Georgia Regiment 56th Alabama Regiment (Partisan Rangers)  
20th Georgia Regiment    
Baxter’s Tennessee Battery; 2 X l2 LB. Howitzer, 2 X 6 LB. Smoothbores, Clarke County Arkansas Battery; 2 X l2 LB. Howitzer, 2 X 6 LB. Smoothbores, Hartis, South Carolina Battery

  * = Horse or horses shot from under him during the Battle of Monroe's Crossroads

Sources: National Park Service; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

Recommended Reading: Battle of Monroe's Crossroads and the Civil War's Final Campaign (Hardcover). Description: The Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, fought March 10, 1865, was one of most important but least known engagements of William T. Sherman's Carolinas Campaign. Confederate cavalry, led by Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton and Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, launched a savage surprise attack on the sleeping camp of Maj. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, Sherman's cavalry chief. After three hours of some of the toughest cavalry fighting of the entire Civil War, Hampton broke off and withdrew. His attack, however, had stopped Kilpatrick's advance and bought another precious day for Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee to evacuate his command from Fayetteville. This, in turn, permitted Hardee to join the command of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and set the stage for the climactic Battle of Bentonville nine days later. Continued below…

Noted Civil War author Eric Wittenberg has written the first detailed tactical narrative of this important but long-forgotten battle, and places it in its proper context within the entire campaign. His study features 28 original maps and 50 illustrations. Finally, an author of renown has brought to vivid life this overlooked portion of the Carolinas Campaign. About the Author: Ohio Attorney Eric J. Wittenberg is a noted Civil War cavalry historian and the author of some dozen books and two dozens articles on the Civil War. His first book, "Gettysburg's Forgotten Cavalry Actions," won the 1998 Bachelder-Coddington Literary Award.

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Recommended Reading: Sherman's March Through the Carolinas. Description: In retrospect, General William Tecumseh Sherman considered his march through the Carolinas the greatest of his military feats, greater even than the Georgia campaign. When he set out northward from Savannah with 60,000 veteran soldiers in January 1865, he was more convinced than ever that the bold application of his ideas of total war could speedily end the conflict. Continued below…

John Barrett's story of what happened in the three months that followed is based on printed memoirs and documentary records of those who fought and of the civilians who lived in the path of Sherman's onslaught. The burning of Columbia, the battle of Bentonville, and Joseph E. Johnston's surrender nine days after Appomattox are at the center of the story, but Barrett also focuses on other aspects of the campaign, such as the undisciplined pillaging of the 'bummers,' and on its effects on local populations. About the Author: John G. Barrett is professor emeritus of history at the Virginia Military Institute. He is author of several books, including The Civil War in North Carolina, and coeditor of North Carolina Civil War Documentary.


Recommended Reading: On Sherman's Trail: The Civil War's North Carolina Climax. Description: Join journalist and historian Jim Wise as he follows Sherman's last march through the Tar Heel State from Wilson's Store to the surrender at Bennett Place. Retrace the steps of the soldiers at Averasboro and Bentonville. Learn about what the civilians faced as the Northern army approached and view the modern landscape through their eyes. Whether you are on the road or in a comfortable armchair, you will enjoy this memorable, well-researched account of General Sherman's North Carolina campaign and the brave men and women who stood in his path.


Recommended Reading: Sherman's March: The First Full-Length Narrative of General William T. Sherman's Devastating March through Georgia and the Carolinas. Description: Sherman's March is the vivid narrative of General William T. Sherman's devastating sweep through Georgia and the Carolinas in the closing days of the Civil War. Weaving together hundreds of eyewitness stories, Burke Davis graphically brings to life the dramatic experiences of the 65,000 Federal troops who plundered their way through the South and those of the anguished -- and often defiant -- Confederate women and men who sought to protect themselves and their family treasures, usually in vain. Dominating these events is the general himself -- "Uncle Billy" to his troops, the devil incarnate to the Southerners he encountered.


Recommended Viewing: The History Channel Presents Sherman's March (2007). Description: “The story of General William Tecumseh Sherman who helped devastate the South's army at the end of the Civil War is told here via vivid reconstructions of his actions.” This is a great reenactment, presentation. It's not dull like some documentaries that just continually talk with the same guy for an hour. This includes several individuals that are extremely knowledgeable in their respective fields--be it civilian or military historian. Also, it includes many re-enactors that portray “Sherman as well as his entire command.” It literally takes the viewer back to 1864 to experience it firsthand.


Recommended Reading: The Battle Of Bentonville: Last Stand In The Carolinas (Hardcover: 575 pages). Description: As Sherman completed the destruction of Georgia, only the outnumbered but wily Confederate commander Joseph E. Johnston stood between Sherman’s army and the conquest of North and South Carolina. Finally, the Battle of Bentonville and the Campaign of the Carolinas ‘gets its well deserved attention.’ Bradley takes the reader from the last organized skirmish against Sherman's army in South Carolina to the climatic Battle at Bentonville. In between, Bradley discusses in detail the Campaign of the Carolinas, which includes the following battles: Rivers’ Bridge, Wyse Fork (aka 2nd Kinston), Monroe’s Crossroads, Averasborough (aka Averasboro), and the grand finale at Bentonville. On these pages, you will literally feel like you are emotionally rising and falling with Johnny Reb and Billy Yank. You will feel that Rebel Yell screaming in your ears and imagine that crackle of musketry. Continued below…

But the finest aspect of the book is its gripping depiction of the Battle of Bentonville; it was literally the Confederate’s last stand to halt Major General William T. Sherman's march through the Carolinas. For nearly a day, a rag tag, mottled army of Confederates from every corner of the Confederacy had the previously unchallenged army of Sherman "on the ropes." However, as the book vividly describes, the determination of a few Federal divisions and reinforcements save the Union army. In between the vivid descriptions of the fighting, Bradley masterfully throws in personal recollections and eyewitness accounts that are unmatched by previous books on the Campaign. An outstanding ‘photo section’ reflects the battlefield from numerous viewpoints, as well as several good-sized photographs of the participants. Also, and most importantly, the book is devoid of prejudice and bias. You will be hard pressed to find a more objective study; even for a subject that pulls so much emotion as Sherman's march. If you read just one book on the rarely discussed Campaign of the Carolinas, with the Battle of Bentonville, and the Confederacy’s last stand... READ THIS ONE. You will not be disappointed.

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