Report of Lieutenant Pendergrast, U.S. Navy, executive officer of the
frigate USS Congress.
FORTRESS MONROE, VA., March 9, 1862.
SIR: Owing to the death of my late commanding officer, Lieutenant Joseph B.
Smith, it is my painful duty to make a report to you of the part which the U.S. frigate Congress took in the efforts
of our vessels at Newport News to repel the attack of the rebel flotilla on the 8th instant. The following are the minutes,
as near as I can inform you:
At 12:40 p. m. the Merrimack with three small gunboats was seen steaming
down from Norfolk. When they had turned into the James River channel and had approached near enough to discover their characters
we cleared the ship for action.
At 2:10 p. m. the Merrimack opened with her bow gun with grape, passing
us on the starboard side at a distance of about 300 yards, receiving our broadside and giving one in return. After passing
the Congress she ran into and sunk the U.S. sloop of war Cumberland. The smaller vessels then attacked us, killing
and wounding many of our crew. Seeing the fate of the Cumberland, we set the jib and topsails, and, with the assistance
of the tugboat Zouave, ran the vessel ashore.
At 3:30 the Merrimack took a position astern of us, at a distance of
about 150 yards, and raked us fore and aft with shells, while one of the smaller steamers kept up a fire on our starboard
In the meantime, the Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson [Jamestown],
rebel steamers, approached us from up the James River, Firing with precision and doing us great damage.
Our two stern guns were now our only means of defense. These were soon disabled,
one being dismounted and the other having its muzzle knocked away. The men were swept away from them with great rapidity and
slaughter by the terrible fire of the enemy.
At about 4:30 I learned of the death of Lieutenant Smith, which happened about
ten minutes previous. Seeing that our men were being killed without the prospect of any relief from the Minnesota, which
vessel had run ashore in attempting to get up to us from Hampton Roads, not being able to bring a single gun to bear upon
the enemy, and the ship being on fire in several places, upon consultation with Commander William Smith, we deemed it proper
to haul down our colors without any further loss of life on our part.
We were soon boarded by an officer from the Merrimack who said that
he would take charge of the ship. He left shortly afterwards, and a small tug came alongside, whose captain demanded that
we should surrender and get out of the ship, as he intended to burn her immediately.
A sharp fire with muskets and artillery was maintained from our troops
ashore upon the tug, having the effect of driving her off. The Merrimack again opened on us, although we had a white
flag at the peak to show that we were out of action. After having fired several shells into us she left us and engaged the
Minnesota and the shore batteries. We took the opportunity to man the boats and send the wounded ashore. We then ourselves
left, the ship being on fire near the after magazine and in the sick bay. In fact, the ship was on fire from the commencement
to the end of the action, three times in the sick bay and wardroom and twice in the main hold, produced by hot shot thrown
from the Merrimack
I lament to record the deaths of the following officers: Lieutenant Joseph
B. Smith, Acting Master Thomas Moore, and Pilot William Rhodes, wounded (since dead).
In conclusion, I beg leave to say that the officers, seamen, and marines performed
their whole duty well and courageously.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Captain JOHN MARSTON,
Source: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the
War of the Rebellion. Series 1, vol. 7 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1898): 23-24.
Reading: The Battle of Hampton
Roads: New Perspectives on the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia (Mariner's Museum). Description: On March 8 and 9, 1862, a sea battle off the Virginia coast changed naval warfare forever. It began when the Confederate States Navy’s
CSS Virginia led a task force to break the Union blockade of Hampton Roads. The Virginia
sank the USS Cumberland and forced the frigate Congress to surrender. Damaged by shore batteries, the Virginia retreated, returning the next day to find her way blocked by the newly arrived
USS Monitor. The clash of ironclads was underway. Continued below…
for nine hours, both ships withdrew, neither seriously damaged, with both sides claiming victory. Although the battle may
have been a draw and the Monitor sank in a storm later that year, this first encounter between powered, ironclad warships
spelled the end of wooden warships—and the dawn of a new navy. This book takes a new look at this historic battle. The
ten original essays, written by leading historians, explore every aspect of the battle—from the building of the warships
and life aboard these “iron coffins” to tactics, strategy, and the debates about who really won the battle of
Hampton Roads. Co-published with The Mariners’ Museum, home to the USS Monitor Center, this authoritative guide to the
military, political, technological, and cultural dimensions of this historic battle also features a portfolio of classic lithographs,
drawings, and paintings. Harold Holzer is one of the country’s leading experts on the Civil War.
Reading: Ironclad Down: USS Merrimack-CSS Virginia from Design to Destruction (Hardcover). Description: The result of more than fifteen years
of research, Ironclad Down is a treasure trove of detailed information about one of history s most famous vessels. Describing
the fascinating people--Stephen Russell Mallory, John Mercer Brooke, John Luke Porter, et al.--who conceived, designed and
built one of the world's first ironclads as well as describing the ship itself, Carl Park offers both the most thoroughly
detailed, in-depth analysis to date of the actual architecture of the Virginia
and a fascinating, colorful chapter of Civil War history.
Reading: Reign of Iron: The Story of the First Battling Ironclads, the Monitor and the Merrimack. From Publishers Weekly: The Monitor-Merrimack showdown may be one
of the Civil War’s most overhyped chestnuts: the two ships were by no means the first ironclads, and their long awaited
confrontation proved an anticlimactic draw, their cannon fire clanging harmlessly off each other’s hulls. Still, the
author of this lively history manages to bring out the story’s dramatic elements. Nelson, author of the Revolution at
Sea series of age-of-sail adventure novels, knows how to narrate a naval crisis. He gives a harrowing account of the Merrimack’s initial onslaught, in which it destroyed two wooden
Union warships in a bloody and chaotic battle the day before the Monitor arrived, and of the Monitor’s nightmarish final
hours as it foundered in a storm at sea. Continued below…
is his retelling of the feverish race between North and South to beat the other side to the punch with their respective wonder
ships. He delves into every aspect of the ships’ innovative design and construction, and draws vivid portraits of the
colorful characters who crafted them, especially the brilliant naval architect John Ericsson, one of that epic breed of engineer-entrepreneurs
who defined the 19th century. The resulting blend of skillful storytelling and historical detail will please Civil War and
naval engineering buffs alike.
Reading: Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S.
Navy. From Publishers Weekly: Starred
Review. Toll, a former financial analyst and political speechwriter, makes an auspicious debut with this rousing, exhaustively
researched history of the founding of the U.S. Navy. The author chronicles the late 18th- and early 19th-century process of
building a fleet that could project American power beyond her shores. The ragtag Continental Navy created during the Revolution
was promptly dismantled after the war, and it wasn't until 1794—in the face of threats to U.S.
shipping from England, France
and the Barbary states of North Africa—that Congress
authorized the construction of six frigates and laid the foundation for a permanent navy. Continued below…
Department of the Navy followed in 1798. The fledgling navy quickly proved its worth in the Quasi War against France
in the Caribbean, the Tripolitan War with Tripoli and the
War of 1812 against the English. In holding its own against the British, the U.S.
fleet broke the British navy's "sacred spell of invincibility," sparked a "new enthusiasm for naval power" in the U.S. and marked the maturation of the American navy. Toll
provides perspective by seamlessly incorporating the era's political and diplomatic history into his superlative single-volume
narrative—a must-read for fans of naval history and the early American
Reading: Confederate Ironclad vs Union Ironclad: Hampton Roads
1862 (Duel). Description: The Ironclad
was a revolutionary weapon of war. Although iron was used for protection in the Far East
during the 16th century, it was the 19th century and the American Civil War that heralded the first modern armored self-propelled
warships. With the parallel pressures of civil war and the industrial revolution, technology advanced at a breakneck speed.
It was the South who first utilized ironclads as they attempted to protect their ports from the Northern blockade. Impressed
with their superior resistance to fire and their ability to ram vulnerable wooden ships, the North began to develop its own
rival fleet of ironclads. Eventually these two products of this first modern arms race dueled at the battle of Hampton Roads
in a clash that would change the face of naval warfare. Continued below…
with cutting-edge digital artwork, rare photographs and first-person perspective gun sight views, this book allows the reader
to discover the revolutionary and radically different designs of the two rival Ironclads - the CSS Virginia and USS Monitor
- through an analysis of each ship's weaponry, ammunition and steerage. Compare the contrasting training of the crews and
re-live the horrors of the battle at sea in a war which split a nation, communities and even families. About the Author: Ron
Field is Head of History at the Cotswold School in
Bourton-on-the-Water. He was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship in 1982 and taught history at Piedmont
High School in California
from 1982 to 1983. He was associate editor of the Confederate Historical Society of Great Britain, from 1983 to 1992. He is
an internationally acknowledged expert on US Civil War military history, and was elected a Fellow of the Company of Military
Historians, based in Washington, DC,
in 2005. The author lives in Cheltenham, UK.
Reading: Lincoln and His
Admirals (Hardcover). Description: Abraham
Lincoln began his presidency admitting that he knew "little about ships," but he quickly came to preside over the largest
national armada to that time, not eclipsed until World War I. Written by prize-winning historian Craig L. Symonds, Lincoln
and His Admirals unveils an aspect of Lincoln's presidency unexamined by historians until now, revealing how he managed the
men who ran the naval side of the Civil War, and how the activities of the Union Navy ultimately affected the course of history.
a gripping account of the attempt to re-supply Fort Sumter--a comedy of errors that shows
all too clearly the fledgling president's inexperience--Symonds traces Lincoln's
steady growth as a wartime commander-in-chief. Absent a Secretary of Defense, he would eventually become de facto commander
of joint operations along the coast and on the rivers. That involved dealing with the men who ran the Navy: the loyal but
often cranky Navy Secretary Gideon Welles, the quiet and reliable David G. Farragut, the flamboyant and unpredictable Charles
Wilkes, the ambitious ordnance expert John Dahlgren, the well-connected Samuel Phillips Lee, and the self-promoting and gregarious
David Dixon Porter. Lincoln was remarkably patient; he often
postponed critical decisions until the momentum of events made the consequences of those decisions evident. But Symonds also
shows that Lincoln could act decisively. Disappointed by the
lethargy of his senior naval officers on the scene, he stepped in and personally directed an amphibious assault on the Virginia coast, a successful operation that led to the capture of Norfolk.
The man who knew "little about ships" had transformed himself into one of the greatest naval strategists of his age. A unique
and riveting portrait of Lincoln and the admirals under his command, this book offers an illuminating account of Lincoln and the nation at war. In the bicentennial year of Lincoln's birth, it offers a memorable portrait of a side of his presidency
often overlooked by historians.
Reading: Civil War Navies, 1855-1883 (The U.S.
Navy Warship Series) (Hardcover). Description: Civil War Warships, 1855-1883 is the second in the five-volume US Navy Warships
encyclopedia set. This valuable reference lists the ships of the U.S. Navy and Confederate Navy during the Civil War and the
years immediately following - a significant period in the evolution of warships, the use of steam propulsion, and the development
of ordnance. Civil War Warships provides a wealth and variety of material not found in other books on the subject and will
save the reader the effort needed to track down information in multiple sources. Continued below…
size and time and place of construction are listed along with particulars of naval service. The author provides historical
details that include actions fought, damage sustained, prizes taken, ships sunk, and dates in and out of commission as well
as information about when the ship left the Navy, names used in other services, and its ultimate fate. 140 photographs, including
one of the Confederate cruiser Alabama recently uncovered by the author further contribute to this
indispensable volume. This definitive record of Civil War ships updates the author's previous work and will find a lasting
place among naval reference works.