African Americans in the Civil War
African American Civil War History
"Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letters, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button,
and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pockets, and there is no power on earth which can deny that he has earned
the right to citizenship in the United States." -- Frederick Douglass
History of African Americans in the Civil War
The words spoken by Frederick Douglass moved many African Americans to enlist
in the Union Army and fight for their freedom. With President Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation
in 1863, the Civil War became a war to save the union and to abolish slavery.
Approximately 180,000 African Americans comprising 163 units served in the
Union Army during the Civil War, and many more African Americans served in the Union Navy. Both free African-Americans and
runaway slaves joined the fight.
On July 17, 1862, Congress passed two acts allowing the enlistment of African
Americans, but official enrollment occurred only after the September 1862, issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation. In general,
white soldiers and officers believed that black men lacked the courage to fight and fight well. In October 1862, African American
soldiers of the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteers silenced their critics by repulsing attacking Confederates at the battle of
Island Mound, Missouri. By August 1863, 14 Negro Regiments were in the field and ready for service. At the battle of Port
Hudson, Louisiana, May 27, 1863, the African American soldiers bravely advanced over open ground in the face of deadly artillery
fire. Although the attack failed, the black soldiers proved their capability to withstand the heat of battle.
On July 17, 1863, at Honey Springs, Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, the 1st
Kansas Colored fought with courage again. Union troops under General James Blunt ran into a strong Confederate force under
General Douglas Cooper. After a two-hour bloody engagement, Cooper's soldiers retreated. The 1st Kansas, which had held the
center of the Union line, advanced to within fifty paces of the Confederate line and exchanged fire for some twenty minutes
until the Confederates broke and ran. General Blunt wrote after the battle, "I never saw such fighting as was done by the
Negro regiment....The question that negroes will fight is settled; besides they make better solders in every respect than
any troops I have ever had under my command."
The most widely known battle fought by African Americans was the assault on
Fort Wagner, South Carolina, by the 54th Massachusetts on July 18, 1863. The 54th volunteered to lead the assault on the strongly-fortified
Confederate positions. The soldiers of the 54th scaled the fort's parapet, and were only driven back after brutal hand-to-hand
Although black soldiers proved themselves as reputable soldiers, discrimination
in pay and other areas remained widespread. According to the Militia Act of 1862, soldiers of African descent were to receive
$10.00 a month, plus a clothing allowance of $3.50. Many regiments struggled for equal pay, some refusing any money until
June 15, 1864, when Congress granted equal pay for all black soldiers.
African American soldiers participated in every major campaign of 1864-1865
except Sherman's invasion of Georgia. The year 1864 was especially eventful for African American troops. On April 12, 1864,
at Fort Pillow, Tennessee, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest led his 2,500 men against the Union-held fortification,
occupied by 292 black and 285 white soldiers. After driving in the Union pickets and giving the garrison an opportunity to
surrender, Forrest's men swarmed into the fort with little difficulty and drove the Federals down the river's bluff into a
deadly crossfire. Casualties were high and only sixty-two of the U.S. Colored Troops survived the fight. Many accused the
Confederates of perpetuating a massacre of black troops, and the controversy continues today. The battle cry for the Negro
soldier east of the Mississippi River became "Remember Fort Pillow!"
The Battle of New Market Heights, Virginia (Chaffin's Farm) became one of
the most heroic engagements involving African Americans. On September 29, 1864, the African American division of the Eighteenth
Corps, after being pinned down by Confederate artillery fire for about 30 minutes, charged the earthworks and rushed up the
slopes of the heights. During the hour-long engagement the division suffered tremendous casualties. Of the sixteen African
Americans who were awarded the Medal of Honor during the Civil War, fourteen received the honor as a result of their actions
at New Market Heights.
In January 1864, General Patrick Cleburne and several other Confederate officers
in the Army of the Tennessee proposed using slaves as soldiers since the Union was using black troops. Cleburne recommended
offering slaves their freedom if they fought and survived. Confederate President Jefferson Davis refused to consider Cleburne's
proposal and forbade further discussion of the idea. The concept, however, did not die. By the fall of 1864, the South was
losing more and more ground, and some believed that only by arming the slaves could defeat be averted. On March 13, the Confederate
Congress passed General Order 14, and President Davis signed the order into law. The order was issued March 23, 1865, but
only a few African American companies were raised, and the war ended before they could be used in battle.
In actual numbers, African American soldiers comprised 10% of the entire Union
Army. Losses among African Americans were high, and from all reported casualties, approximately one-third of all African Americans
enrolled in the military lost their lives during the Civil War.
Source: National Park Service
Recommended Reading: The Sable Arm: Black Troops in the Union Army, 1861-1865 (Modern War Studies). Description: A bona fide classic, The Sable
Arm was the first work to fully chronicle the remarkable story of the nearly 180,000 black troops who served in the Union
army. This work paved the way for the exploration of the black military experience in other wars. This edition, with a new
foreword by Herman Hattaway and bibliographical essay by the author, makes available once again a pioneering work that will
be especially useful for scholars and students of Civil War, black, and military history. Continued below...
Civil War Times Illustrated:
"One of the one hundred best books ever written on the Civil War."
americancivilwarhistory.org: "An indispensable
volume that delivers the missing chapters of African American Civil War history."
A Grand Army of Black Men: Letters from African-American Soldiers in the Union Army 1861-1865
(Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture). Description: The Civil War stands vivid in the collective memory of the American public. There has always been a profound interest
in the subject, and specifically of Blacks' participation in and reactions to the war and the war's outcome. Almost 200,000
African-American soldiers fought for the Union in the Civil War. Although most were illiterate
ex-slaves, several thousand were well educated, free black men from the northern states. The 129 letters in this collection
were written by black soldiers in the Union army during the Civil War to black and abolitionist newspapers. Continued below...
a unique expression of the black voice that was meant for a public forum. The letters tell of the men's experiences, their
fears, and their hopes. They describe in detail their army days--the excitement of combat and the drudgery of digging trenches.
Some letters give vivid descriptions of battle; others protest racism; while others call eloquently for civil rights. Many describe their conviction that they are fighting not only to free the slaves but to
earn equal rights as citizens. These letters give an extraordinary picture of the war and also reveal the bright expectations,
hopes, and ultimately the demands that black soldiers had for the future--for themselves and for their race. As first-person
documents of the Civil War, the letters are strong statements of the American dream of justice and equality, and of the human
Reading: Like Men of War.
Description: Although countless books have been written about the Civil War, the role of black
troops has been consistently underrepresented until recently. Nearly 180,000 of them fought--mostly for the North, but a handful
even took up arms for the slaveholding South. Many wanted to serve at the start of the conflict, but a variety of factors
kept them on the sidelines. Until Lincoln's
Emancipation Proclamation in 1862, many Union leaders--including the president--held that the war was not about slavery. Racist
views caused some to question further the value of black soldiers; there was also genuine concern about how Confederates would
treat captured blacks. Continued below...
But, as Noah Andre Trudeau reveals, black soldiers demonstrated
bravery and professionalism from the moment they suited up. He recounts well-known events, such as the 54th Massachusetts' attack on Fort Wagner,
as well as less familiar ones, such as blacks' involvement in the war's last directed combat one month after Lee's surrender.
There were atrocities, too: in 1864, Confederates slaughtered black prisoners of war at Fort Pillow (historians once disputed this brutal act of cold-blooded
murder, but most scholars accept it as true today). Although Trudeau sometimes sacrifices his narrative drive to excessive
detail, Like Men of War remains a compelling book full of strong battle scenes.
Reading: Uncle Tom's Cabin (Wordsworth Classics), by Harriet
Beecher Stowe (Author). Description: Edited and with
an Introduction and Notes by Dr Keith Carabine, University of Kent
at Canterbury. Uncle Tom's Cabin is the most popular, influential
and controversial book written by an American. Stowe s rich, panoramic novel passionately dramatizes why the whole of America is implicated in and responsible for the
sin of slavery, and resoundingly concludes that only 'repentance, justice and mercy' will prevent the onset of 'the wrath
of Almighty God!'.
Reading: Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (944 pages) (Simon & Schuster). Description:
The life and times of Abraham Lincoln have been analyzed and dissected in countless books. Do we need another Lincoln biography? In Team of Rivals, esteemed historian Doris Kearns Goodwin proves that
we do. Though she can't help but cover some familiar territory, her perspective is focused enough to offer fresh insights
into Lincoln's leadership style and his deep understanding
of human behavior and motivation. Goodwin makes the case for Lincoln's
political genius by examining his relationships with three men he selected for his cabinet, all of whom were opponents for
the Republican nomination in 1860: William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase, and Edward Bates. Continued below...
all accomplished, nationally known, and presidential, originally disdained Lincoln for his backwoods upbringing and lack of
experience, and were shocked and humiliated at losing to this relatively obscure Illinois lawyer. Yet Lincoln
not only convinced them to join his administration--Seward as secretary of state, Chase as secretary of the treasury, and
Bates as attorney general--he ultimately gained their admiration and respect as well. How he soothed egos, turned rivals into
allies, and dealt with many challenges to his leadership, all for the sake of the greater good, is largely what Goodwin's
fine book is about. Had he not possessed the wisdom and confidence to select and work with the best people, she argues, he
could not have led the nation through one of its darkest periods. Ten years in the making, this engaging work reveals why
"Lincoln's road to success was longer, more tortuous, and far less likely" than the other men,
and why, when opportunity beckoned, Lincoln was "the best
prepared to answer the call." This multiple biography further provides valuable background and insights into the contributions
and talents of Seward, Chase, and Bates. Lincoln may have been "the indispensable ingredient
of the Civil War," but these three men were invaluable to Lincoln
and they played key roles in keeping the nation intact.
NEW! Recommended Reading:
The Radical and the Republican: Frederick
Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the Triumph of Antislavery Politics. Review From Publishers Weekly: The perennial
tension between principle and pragmatism in politics frames this engaging account of two Civil War Era icons. Historian Oakes
(Slavery and Freedom) charts the course by which Douglass and Lincoln, initially far apart on the antislavery spectrum, gravitated
toward each other. Lincoln began as a moderate who advocated banning slavery in the territories while tolerating it in the
South, rejected social equality for blacks and wanted to send freedmen overseas—and wound up abolishing slavery outright
and increasingly supporting black voting rights. Conversely, the abolitionist firebrand Douglass moved from an impatient,
self-marginalizing moral rectitude to a recognition of compromise, coalition building and incremental goals as necessary steps
forward in a democracy. Continued below...
views on race were essentially modern; the book is really a study through his eyes of the more complex figure of Lincoln.
Oakes lucidly explores how political realities and military necessity influenced Lincoln's
tortuous path to emancipation, and asks whether his often bigoted pronouncements represented real conviction or strategic
concessions to white racism. As Douglass shifts from denouncing Lincoln's foot-dragging to
revering his achievements, Oakes vividly conveys both the immense distance America
traveled to arrive at a more enlightened place and the fraught politics that brought it there. AWARDED FIVE STARS by americancivilwarhistory.org
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