Gettysburg Artillery

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Gettysburg Artillery
Union Artillery at Battle of Gettysburg

Gettysburg Cannon.gif

As organized during the Gettysburg Campaign, June-July, 1863


Chief of Artillery: Brigadier General Henry J. Hunt

First Corps Artillery Brigade: Colonel Charles Wainwright
2nd Maine Battery- Captain James A. Hall
5th Maine Battery- Captain Greenlief T. Stevens, Lt. Edward Whittier
Battery E & L, 1st New York Light- Captain Gilbert Reynolds, Lt. George Breck
Battery B, 1st Pennsylvania Light- Captain James Cooper
Battery B, 4th US Artillery- Lt. James Stewart

Second Corps Artillery Brigade:Captain John G. Hazard
Battery B, 1st New York Light- Capt. James Rorty, Lt. Albert Shelden, Lt. Robert E. Rogers
Battery A, 1st Rhode Island- Capt. William A. Arnold
Battery B, 1st Rhode Island- Captain Fred Brown, Lt. Walter Perrin
Battery I, 1st US Artillery- Lt. George A. Woodruff, Lt. Tully McCrea
Battery A, 4th US Artillery- Lt. Alonzo Cushing, Sgt. Frederick Fuger

Third Corps Artillery Brigade: Capt. George E. Randolph, Capt. A. Judson Clark
Battery B, 2nd New Jersey Light- Capt. Judson Clark, Lt. Robert Sims
Battery D, 1st New York Light- Capt. George Winslow
4th New York Battery- Captain James H. Smith
Battery E, 1st Rhode Island Light- Lt. John K. Bucklyn, Lt. Benjamin Freeborn
Battery K, 4th US Artillery- Lt. Francis W. Seeley, Lt. Robert James

Fifth Corps Artillery Brigade: Captain Augustus V. Martin
Battery C, 3rd Massachusetts Artillery- Lt. Aaron Walcott
Battery C, 1st New York- Capt. Almont Barnes
Battery L, 1st Ohio Light Artillery- Capt. Frank Gibbs
Battery D, 5th US Artillery- Capt. Charles Hazlett, Lt. Benjamin Rittenhouse
Battery I, 5th US Artillery- Lt. Malbone Watson, Lt. Charles MacConnell

Sixth Corps Artillery Brigade: Colonel Charles H. Tompkins
Battery A, 1st Massachusetts- Capt. William McCartney
1st New York Indpnt Battery- Captain Andrew Cowan
3rd New York Indpnt Battery- Capt. William A. Harn
Battery C, 1st Rhode Island- Capt. Richard Waterman
Battery G, 1st Rhode Island- Capt. George Adams
Battery D, 2nd US Artillery- Lt. Edward Williston
Battery G, 2nd US Artillery- Lt. John Butler
Battery F, 5th US Artillery- Lt. Leonard Martin

Eleventh Corps Artillery Brigade: Major Thomas Osborn
Battery I, 1st New York Light- Captain Michael Wiedrich
13th New York Indpnt Battery- Lt. William Wheeler
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light- Capt. Hubert Dilger
Battery K, 1st Ohio Light- Capt. Lewis Heckman
Battery G, 4th US Artillery- Lt. Bayard Wilkeson, Lt. Eugene Bancroft

Twelfth Corps Artillery Brigade: Lt. Edward Muhlenberg
Battery M, 1st New York Light- Lt. Charles Winegar
Battery E, Pennsylvania Indpnt Light- Lt. Charles Atwell
Battery F, 4th US Artillery- Lt. Sylvanus Rugg
Battery K, 5th US Artillery- Lt. David Kinzie

Cavalry Corps Horse Artillery, 1st Brigade: Capt. James Robertson
9th Michigan Battery- Capt. Jabez Daniels
6th New York Battery- Capt. Joseph Martin
Battery B & L, 2nd US Artillery- Lt. Edward Heaton
Battery M, 2nd US Artillery-Lt. A.C.M. Pennington, Jr.
Battery E, 4th US Artillery- Lt. Samuel Elder

Cavalry Corps Horse Artillery, 2nd Brigade: Capt. John Tidball
Battery E & G, 1st US Artillery- Capt. Alanson Randol
Battery K, 1st US Artillery- Capt. William Graham
Battery A, 2nd US Artillery- Lt. John Calef
Battery C, 3rd US Artillery- Lt. William Fuller

Artillery Reserve: Brig. Gen. Robert Tyler, Capt. James Robertson
1st Regular Brigade: Capt. Dunbar Ransom
Battery H, 1st US Artillery- Lt. Chandler Eakin, Lt. Philip Mason
Battery F & K, 3rd US Artillery- Lt. John Turnbull
Battery C, 4th US Artillery- Lt. Evan Thomas
Battery C, 5th US Artillery- Lt. Gulian Weir

1st Volunteer Brigade: Lt. Col. Freeman McGilvery
Battery E, 5th Massachusetts Light- Capt. Charles Phillips
9th Massachusetts Light Battery- Capt. John Bigelow, Lt. Richard Milton
15th New York Indpnt Battery- Capt. Patrick Hart
Battery C & F, Pennsylvania Light- Capt. James Thompson

2nd Volunteer Brigade: Capt. Elijah Taft
Battery B, 1st Connecticut Heavy- Capt. Albert Brooker
Battery M, 1st Connecticut Heavy- Capt. Franklin Pratt
2nd Connecticut Light Battery- Capt. John Sterling
5th New York Indpnt Battery- Capt. Elijah Taft

3rd Volunteer Brigade: Capt. James Huntington
1st New Hampshire Light- Capt. Frederick Edgell
Battery H, 1st Ohio Light- Lt. George Norton
Battery F & G, 1st Pennsylvania Light- Capt. R. Bruce Ricketts
Battery C, 1st West Virginia Light- Capt. Wallace Hill

4th Volunteer Brigade: Capt. Robert Fitzhugh
6th Maine Battery- Lt. Edwin Dow
Battery A, 1st Maryland Light- Capt. James Rigby
Battery A, 1st New Jersey Light- Lt. Augustus Parsons
Battery G, 1st New York Light- Capt. Nelson Ames
Battery K, 1st New York Light- Capt. Robert Fitzhugh

Sources: Gettysburg National Military Park; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

Recommended Reading: The Artillery of Gettysburg (Hardcover). Description: The battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, the apex of the Confederacy's final major invasion of the North, was a devastating defeat that also marked the end of the South's offensive strategy against the North. From this battle until the end of the war, the Confederate armies largely remained defensive. The Artillery of Gettysburg is a thought-provoking look at the role of the artillery during the July 1-3, 1863 conflict. Continued below.

During the Gettysburg campaign, artillery had already gained the respect in both armies. Used defensively, it could break up attacking formations and change the outcomes of battle. On the offense, it could soften up enemy positions prior to attack. And even if the results were not immediately obvious, the psychological effects to strong artillery support could bolster the infantry and discourage the enemy. Ultimately, infantry and artillery branches became codependent, for the artillery needed infantry support lest it be decimated by enemy infantry or captured. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia had modified its codependent command system in February 1863. Prior to that, batteries were allocated to brigades, but now they were assigned to each infantry division, thus decentralizing its command structure and making it more difficult for Gen. Robert E. Lee and his artillery chief, Brig. Gen. William Pendleton, to control their deployment on the battlefield. The Union Army of the Potomac had superior artillery capabilities in numerous ways. At Gettysburg, the Federal artillery had 372 cannons and the Confederates 283. To make matters worse, the Confederate artillery frequently was hindered by the quality of the fuses, which caused the shells to explode too early, too late, or not at all. When combined with a command structure that gave Union Brig. Gen. Henry Hunt more direct control--than his Southern counterpart had over his forces--the Federal army enjoyed a decided advantage in the countryside around GettysburgBradley M. Gottfried provides insight into how the two armies employed their artillery, how the different kinds of weapons functioned in battle, and the strategies for using each of them. He shows how artillery affected the “ebb and flow” of battle for both armies and thus provides a unique way of understanding the strategies of the Federal and Union commanders.

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Recommended Reading: Civil War Artillery At Gettysburg (Paperback). Description: There were over 600 artillery pieces at Gettysburg. The guns were managed and operated by over 14,000 men. In three days over 50,000 rounds were fired. What impact did artillery have on this famous battle? How efficiently were the guns used, ie, tactics and strategy? What were the strengths and weaknesses on each side? This outstanding book answers the many artillery questions at Gettysburg. Using accessible descriptions, this work details the state of the art of this "long arm" as it existed at the time of the battle. It is an informative overview of field artillery in general while using the battle of Gettysburg to illustrate artillery technology. For it was Gettysburg when the artillery branch of both armies had matured to the point where its organization would stay relatively unchanged for the remainder of the conflict. Prior to Gettysburg, neither army had the “same mix of guns” nor, more importantly, the same structure of organization as it did at this battle. Continued below.

The effects were telling. This book is an artillery 'buff's' delight...The work meticulously examines the forming of the respective artillery arms of the two armies; the organization; artillery technology; guns; equipment and animals constituting that arm; ammunition; artillery operations; the artillerymen and, finally, actions of the guns on July 2 and 3....The work is perfect for someone seeking more data than found in most general histories of the battle...Nicely illustrated to supplement the text, the succinctly written technical details of ballistics, projectile composition and impact of technology for battlefield lethality will prove similarly useful and exciting for anyone captivated by the guns of Gettysburg. Cole explains the benefits and liabilities of each piece of artillery....His use of photographs, diagrams, and maps are excellent and integrate seamlessly into the text....Not only does it explain why events unfolded the way they did , it helps explain how they unfolded. No other modern book on Civil War artillery of this size is as detailed...as this book is generally...The author's broad approach to the whole subject of artillery tactics shine when he compares and contrasts several artillery incidents at Gettysburg that better explain what was going on at the time....This book is essential for all those interested in Civil War artillery, 19th century artillery, or just the battle of Gettysburg. I found Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg to be an informative and well written account of the 'long-arm' at Gettysburg. The book is very well-illustrated with maps and photos throughout. I thoroughly enjoyed this book and highly recommend it.

 

Recommended Reading: Cannons: An Introduction to Civil War Artillery. Description: The concise guide to the weapons, ammunition and equipment of Civil War artillery; includes more than 150 photographs, pictures and drawings. While this might look like a simple kids book/pamphlet on the cover, there is far more inside this extremely well illustrated guide. The author does a fine job providing a wide overview of the most important cannons of the American Civil War, textual summaries of each and sufficient details of their fundamental statistics. Continued below...

The amazing part is how much the author has fit between a mere 72 pages. This work is very inexpensive and should prove useful to anyone touring Civil War battlefields, interested in Civil War gaming, reenacting, or curious about civil war cannons.
 

Recommended Reading: Commanding the Army of the Potomac (Modern War Studies) (Hardcover). Description: During the Civil War, thirty-six officers in the Army of the Potomac were assigned corps commands of up to 30,000 men. Collectively charged with leading the Union's most significant field army, these leaders proved their courage in countless battlefields from Gettysburg to Antietam to Cold Harbor. Unfortunately, courage alone was not enough. Their often dismal performances played a major role in producing this army's tragic record, one that included more defeats than victories despite its numerical and materiel superiority. Stephen Taaffe takes a close look at this command cadre, examining who was appointed to these positions, why they were appointed, and why so many of them ultimately failed to fulfill their responsibilities. Continued below.

He demonstrates that ambitious officers such as Gouverneur Warren, John Reynolds, and Winfield Scott Hancock employed all the weapons at their disposal, from personal connections to exaggerated accounts of prowess in combat, to claw their way into these important posts. Once appointed, however, Taaffe reveals that many of these officers failed to navigate the tricky and ever-changing political currents that swirled around the Army of the Potomac. As a result, only three of them managed to retain their commands for more than a year, and their machinations caused considerable turmoil in the army's high command structure. Taaffe also shows that their ability or inability to get along with generals such as George McClellan, Ambrose Burnside, Joseph Hooker, George Meade, and Ulysses Grant played a big role in their professional destinies. In analyzing the Army of the Potomac's corps commanders as a group, Taaffe provides a new way of detailing this army's chronic difficulties-one that, until now, has been largely neglected in the literature of the Civil War.

 
Recommended Reading: Pickett's Charge--The Last Attack at Gettysburg (Hardcover). Description: Pickett's Charge is probably the best-known military engagement of the Civil War, widely regarded as the defining moment of the battle of Gettysburg and celebrated as the high-water mark of the Confederacy. But as Earl Hess notes, the epic stature of Pickett's Charge has grown at the expense of reality, and the facts of the attack have been obscured or distorted by the legend that surrounds them. With this book, Hess sweeps away the accumulated myths about Pickett's Charge to provide the definitive history of the engagement. Continued below...
Drawing on exhaustive research, especially in unpublished personal accounts, he creates a moving narrative of the attack from both Union and Confederate perspectives, analyzing its planning, execution, aftermath, and legacy. He also examines the history of the units involved, their state of readiness, how they maneuvered under fire, and what the men who marched in the ranks thought about their participation in the assault. Ultimately, Hess explains, such an approach reveals Pickett's Charge both as a case study in how soldiers deal with combat and as a dramatic example of heroism, failure, and fate on the battlefield.
 
Recommended Reading: Pickett's Charge: Eyewitness Accounts At The Battle Of Gettysburg (Stackpole Military History Series). Description: On the final day of the battle of Gettysburg, Robert E. Lee ordered one of the most famous infantry assaults of all time: Pickett's Charge. Following a thundering artillery barrage, thousands of Confederates launched a daring frontal attack on the Union line. From their entrenched positions, Federal soldiers decimated the charging Rebels, leaving the field littered with the fallen and several Southern divisions in tatters. Written by generals, officers, and enlisted men on both sides, these firsthand accounts offer an up-close look at Civil War combat and a panoramic view of the carnage of July 3, 1863.
 

Recommended ReadingBrigades of Gettysburg: The Union and Confederate Brigades at the Battle of Gettysburg (Hardcover) (704 Pages). Description: While the battle of Gettysburg is certainly the most-studied battle in American history, a comprehensive treatment of the part played by each unit has been ignored. Brigades of Gettysburg fills this void by presenting a complete account of every brigade unit at Gettysburg and providing a fresh perspective of the battle. Using the words of enlisted men and officers, the author and renowned Civil War historian, Bradley Gottfried, weaves a fascinating narrative of the role played by every brigade at the famous three-day battle, as well as a detailed description of each brigade unit. Continued below...

Organized by order of battle, each brigade is covered in complete and exhaustive detail: where it fought, who commanded, what constituted the unit, and how it performed in battle. Innovative in its approach and comprehensive in its coverage, Brigades of Gettysburg is certain to be a classic and indispensable reference for the battle of Gettysburg for years to come.

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