Gettysburg Artillery

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Gettysburg Artillery
Confederate Artillery at Battle of Gettysburg

Gettysburg Artillery.gif

As organized during the Gettysburg Campaign, June-July, 1863


Chief of Artillery: Brig. General William Nelson Pendleton

Longstreet's Corps

Cabell's Battalion (McLaws' Division): Colonel Henry C. Cabell
Battery A, 1st North Carolina- Capt. Basil Manly
Pulaski (Georgia) Artillery- Capt. John W. Fraser, Lt. William J. Furlong
1st Richmond Howitzers- Capt. Edward McCarthy
Troup (Georgia) Artillery- Capt. Henry Carlton, Lt. C.W. Motes

Dearing's Battalion (Pickett's Division): Major James Dearing
Fauquier (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Robert Stribling
Hampden (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Robert Caskie
Richmond Fayette Artillery- Capt. Miles Macon
Blount's Virginia Battery- Captain Joseph Blount

Henry's Battalion (Hood's Division): Capt. Mathias Henry
Branch (North Carolina) Artillery- Capt. Alexander Latham
German (South Carolina) Artillery- Capt. William Bachman
Palmetto (South Carolina) Artillery- Capt. Hugh Garden
Rowan (North Carolina) Artillery- Capt. James Reilly

First Corps Artillery Reserve: Colonel James Walton
Alexander's Battalion:Col. Edward Alexander
Ashland (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Pichegru Woolfolk, Jr. , Capt. James Woolfolk
Bedford (Virginia) Artillery- Captain Tyler C. Jordan
Brooks (South Carolina) Artillery- Lt. S.C. Gilbert
Madison (Louisiana) Artillery- Capt. George V. Moody
Parker's Virginia Battery- Capt. William Parker
Taylor's Virginia Battery- Capt. Osmond Taylor

Washington Artillery of New Orleans:Major Benjamin Eshleman
1st Company- Capt. Charles Squires
2nd Company- Capt. John Richardson
3rd Company- Capt. Merritt Miller
4th Company- Capt. Joe Norcom, Lt. H.A. Battles

Ewell's Corps

Jones' Battalion (Early's Division): Lt. Colonel Hilary Jones
Charlottesville (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. James Carrington
Courtney (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. William A. Tanner
Louisiana Guard Artillery- Capt. Charles Green
Staunton (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Asher Garber

Latimer's Battalion (Johnson's Division): Major James W. Latimer, Capt. Charles Raine
1st Maryland Battery- Capt. William Dement
Alleghany (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. John Carpenter
Chesapeake (Maryland) Artillery- Capt. William Brown
Lee (Virginia) Battery- Capt. Charles Raine, Lt. William Hardwicke

Carter's Battalion (Rodes' Division): Lt. Col. Thomas W. Carter
Jeff Davis (Alabama) Artillery- Capt. J.W. Reese
King William (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. W.P. Carter
Morris (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. R.C.M. Page
Orange (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. C.W. Fry

Second Corps Artillery Reserve: Col. J. Thompson Brown
1st Virginia Battalion: Capt. Willis Dance
2nd Richmond Howitzers- Capt. David Watson
3rd Richmond Howitzers- Capt. Benjamin Smith, Jr.
Powhatan (Virginia) Artillery- Lt. John Cunningham
Rockbridge (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Archibald Graham
Salem (Virginia) Artillery- Lt. Charles B. Griffin

Nelson's Battalion: Lt. Col. William Nelson
Amherst (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Thomas Kirkpatrick
Fluvanna (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. John Massie
Milledge's Georgia Battery- Capt. John Milledge, Jr.

Hill's Corps

Sumter Battalion (Anderson's Division): Major John Lane
Company A- Capt. Hugh Ross
Company B- Capt. George Patterson
Company C- Capt. John Wingfield

Garnett's Battalion (Heth's Division): Lt. Col. John J. Garnett
Donaldsville (Louisiana) Artillery- Capt. Victor Maurin
Huger (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Joseph Moore
Lewis' Virginia Battery- Capt. John Lewis
Norfolk Blues Light Artillery- Capt. Charles Grandy

Poague's Battalion (Pender's Division): Major William T. Poague
Albemarle (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. James Wyatt
Charlotte (North Carolina) Artillery- Capt. Joseph Graham
Madison (Mississippi) Light Artillery-- Capt. George Ward
Brooke's Virginia Battery- Capt. James V. Brooke

Third Corps Artillery Reserve: Col. R. Lindsay Walker
McIntosh's Battalion: Major David McIntosh
Danville (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Sidney Rice
Hardaway (Alabama) Artillery- Capt. William Hurt
2nd Rockbridge (Virginia) Artillery- Lt. Samuel Wallace
Johnson's Virginia Battery- Capt. Marmaduke Johnson

Pegram's Battalion: Major William J. Pegram, Capt. E.B. Brunson
Crenshaw's Virginia Battery- Capt. William G. Crenshaw
Fredericksburg (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Edward Mayre
Letcher (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Thomas Brander
Pee Dee (South Carolina) Artillery- Lt. Joseph Zimmerman
Purcell (Virginia) Artillery- Capt. Joseph McGraw

Stuart's Division

Horse Artillery: Major Robert Beckham
Breathed's (Virginia) Battery- Capt. James Brethed
Chew's (Virginia) Battery- Capt. Robert P. Chew
Griffin's Maryland Battery- Capt. William Griffin
Hart's South Carolina Battery- Capt. James Hart
McGregor's Virginia Battery- Capt. William McGregor
Moorman's Virginia Battery- Capt. Marcellus M. Moorman

McClanahan's Virginia Battery (Imboden's Command)- Capt. John H. McClanahan

Sources: Gettysburg National Military Park; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

Recommended Reading: The Artillery of Gettysburg (Hardcover). Description: The battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, the apex of the Confederacy's final major invasion of the North, was a devastating defeat that also marked the end of the South's offensive strategy against the North. From this battle until the end of the war, the Confederate armies largely remained defensive. The Artillery of Gettysburg is a thought-provoking look at the role of the artillery during the July 1-3, 1863 conflict. Continued below.

During the Gettysburg campaign, artillery had already gained the respect in both armies. Used defensively, it could break up attacking formations and change the outcomes of battle. On the offense, it could soften up enemy positions prior to attack. And even if the results were not immediately obvious, the psychological effects to strong artillery support could bolster the infantry and discourage the enemy. Ultimately, infantry and artillery branches became codependent, for the artillery needed infantry support lest it be decimated by enemy infantry or captured. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia had modified its codependent command system in February 1863. Prior to that, batteries were allocated to brigades, but now they were assigned to each infantry division, thus decentralizing its command structure and making it more difficult for Gen. Robert E. Lee and his artillery chief, Brig. Gen. William Pendleton, to control their deployment on the battlefield. The Union Army of the Potomac had superior artillery capabilities in numerous ways. At Gettysburg, the Federal artillery had 372 cannons and the Confederates 283. To make matters worse, the Confederate artillery frequently was hindered by the quality of the fuses, which caused the shells to explode too early, too late, or not at all. When combined with a command structure that gave Union Brig. Gen. Henry Hunt more direct control--than his Southern counterpart had over his forces--the Federal army enjoyed a decided advantage in the countryside around GettysburgBradley M. Gottfried provides insight into how the two armies employed their artillery, how the different kinds of weapons functioned in battle, and the strategies for using each of them. He shows how artillery affected the “ebb and flow” of battle for both armies and thus provides a unique way of understanding the strategies of the Federal and Union commanders.

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Recommended Reading: Civil War Artillery At Gettysburg (Paperback). Description: There were over 600 artillery pieces at Gettysburg. The guns were managed and operated by over 14,000 men. In three days over 50,000 rounds were fired. What impact did artillery have on this famous battle? How efficiently were the guns used, ie, tactics and strategy? What were the strengths and weaknesses on each side? This outstanding book answers the many artillery questions at Gettysburg. Using accessible descriptions, this work details the state of the art of this "long arm" as it existed at the time of the battle. It is an informative overview of field artillery in general while using the battle of Gettysburg to illustrate artillery technology. For it was Gettysburg when the artillery branch of both armies had matured to the point where its organization would stay relatively unchanged for the remainder of the conflict. Prior to Gettysburg, neither army had the “same mix of guns” nor, more importantly, the same structure of organization as it did at this battle. Continued below.

The effects were telling. This book is an artillery 'buff's' delight...The work meticulously examines the forming of the respective artillery arms of the two armies; the organization; artillery technology; guns; equipment and animals constituting that arm; ammunition; artillery operations; the artillerymen and, finally, actions of the guns on July 2 and 3....The work is perfect for someone seeking more data than found in most general histories of the battle...Nicely illustrated to supplement the text, the succinctly written technical details of ballistics, projectile composition and impact of technology for battlefield lethality will prove similarly useful and exciting for anyone captivated by the guns of Gettysburg. Cole explains the benefits and liabilities of each piece of artillery....His use of photographs, diagrams, and maps are excellent and integrate seamlessly into the text....Not only does it explain why events unfolded the way they did , it helps explain how they unfolded. No other modern book on Civil War artillery of this size is as detailed...as this book is generally...The author's broad approach to the whole subject of artillery tactics shine when he compares and contrasts several artillery incidents at Gettysburg that better explain what was going on at the time....This book is essential for all those interested in Civil War artillery, 19th century artillery, or just the battle of Gettysburg. I found Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg to be an informative and well written account of the 'long-arm' at Gettysburg. The book is very well-illustrated with maps and photos throughout. I thoroughly enjoyed this book and highly recommend it.

 

Recommended Reading: Cannons: An Introduction to Civil War Artillery. Description: The concise guide to the weapons, ammunition and equipment of Civil War artillery; includes more than 150 photographs, pictures and drawings. While this might look like a simple kids book/pamphlet on the cover, there is far more inside this extremely well illustrated guide. The author does a fine job providing a wide overview of the most important cannons of the American Civil War, textual summaries of each and sufficient details of their fundamental statistics. Continued below.

The amazing part is how much the author has fit between a mere 72 pages. This work is very inexpensive and should prove useful to anyone touring Civil War battlefields, interested in Civil War gaming, reenacting, or curious about civil war cannons.
 

Recommended Reading: Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, revised edition (324 pages) (University of Illinois Press). Description: "Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War" is the definitive reference work for civil war cannon used in the field. Nothing else approaches its structured grouping and organization of the diverse and confused world of American Civil War field guns.

 

Recommended Reading: Confederate Artilleryman 1861-65 (Warrior). Description: This title guides the reader through the life and experiences of the Confederate cannoneer - where he came from; how he trained and lived; how he dressed, ate and was equipped; and how he fought. Insights into the real lives of history's fighting men, and packed with full color illustrations, highly detailed cutaways, and exploded artwork. Continued below.

When the Civil War began in 1861, comparatively few Southern men volunteered for service in the artillery: most preferred the easily accessible glory of the infantry or cavalry. Yet, the artillerist quickly earned the respect of their fellow soldiers, and a reputation for being able to "pull through deeper mud, ford deeper springs, shoot faster, swear louder ... than any other class of men in the service." Given that field artillery was invariably deployed in front of the troops that it was supporting, the artillerymen were exposed to a high level of enemy fire, and losses were significant.
 

Recommended Reading: Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance: A Guide to Large Artillery Projectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines (Hardcover) (537 pages) (University of North Texas Press). Description: The heavy ordnance is divided into two sections: large smoothbore projectiles, and rifled projectiles. The smoothbore section is subdivided into: shot, shell and case shot; canister; and grape. Rifled projectiles are then subdivided into twenty-seven major types and one miscellaneous group. Continued below.

The general form of each entry is a brief introduction of a page or several pages about the type (Archer, Hotchkiss, Dyer, etc.) and then the following pages contain one to three images of each size and type of projectile of that type. When three images of a given projectile are provided they are viewed straight on from top, bottom, and side. Some images of shell or case are half sections. Entries below each set of photographs provide diameter, length, weight, gun, sabot, fuze, rifling, rarity, provenance, and comments. RATED 5 STARS!
 

Recommended Reading: Civil War Cavalry & Artillery Sabers (Swords) (Hardcover). Description: The ultimate guide to sabers of the Civil War. This huge resource is easily the most important sword book written in decades, and is lavishly illustrated with 1,400 photographs, 60 of them in color. An important extra feature is that it also includes all sabers from the prewar period, right back to 1833. Every make and every known variation is covered with full history, tables and illustrations. Photographs include hundreds of close-ups showing the small features that tell one saber apart from the others. A truly groundbreaking work. Several photos not seen. Each photo is accompanied by a detailed description.

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