Indian Removal and Trail of Tears
Setting the Stage
When English and European
immigrants arrived on the North American continent, they found many people whose appearance, lifestyle, and spiritual beliefs
differed from those they were familiar with. During the course of the next two centuries, their interactions varied between
cooperation and communication to conflict and warfare. The newcomers needed land for settlement, and they sought it by sale,
treaty, or force.
Between 1790 and 1830, tribes
located east of the Mississippi River, including the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles, signed many treaties
with the United States. Presidents George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and
James Madison struggled to find a balance between the obligation of the new nation to uphold its treaty commitments and the
desires of its new citizens for more land. Ultimately, the federal government was unwilling or unable to protect the Indians
from the insatiable demands of the settlers for more land.
The Louisiana Purchase added
millions of less densely populated square miles west of the Mississippi River to the United States. Thomas Jefferson suggested that the eastern American Indians might
be induced to relocate to the new territory voluntarily, to live in peace without interference from whites. A voluntary relocation
plan was enacted into law in 1824 and some Indians chose to move west.
|Map of Southeastern Native American Indian Tribes
|Indian Removal and Trail of Tears Map
Land occupied by Southeastern Tribes, 1820s.
(Adapted from Sam Bowers Hilliard, "Indian Land Cessions" [detail], Map
Supplement 16, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 62, no. 2 [June 1972].)
8. Illinois Confederation
The 1828 election of President
Andrew Jackson, who made his name as an Indian fighter, marked a change in federal policies. As part of his plans for the
United States, he was determined to remove the remaining tribes from the east and
relocate them in the west. Between the 1830 Indian Removal Act and 1850, the U.S.
government used forced treaties and/or U.S. Army action to move about 100,000 American Indians living east of the Mississippi
River, westward to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma.
Among the relocated tribes were the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole. The Choctaw relocation began in 1830; the Chickasaw relocation was in 1837; the Creek were removed by force in 1836 following negotiations
that started in 1832; and the Seminole removal triggered a 7-year war that ended in 1843. The trails they followed became
known as the Trail of Tears, and the Cherokee were among the last to go and this is the
The Cherokee Nation in the 1820s
Cherokee culture thrived for thousands
of years in the southeastern United States before European contact. When the Europeans
settlers arrived, the Indians they encountered, including the Cherokee, assisted them with food and supplies. The Cherokees
taught the early settlers how to hunt, fish, and farm in their new environment. They introduced them to crops such as corn,
squash, and potatoes; and taught them how to use herbal medicines for illnesses.
By the 1820s, many Cherokees had
adopted some of the cultural patterns of the white settlers as well. The settlers introduced new crops and farming techniques.
Some Cherokee farms grew into small plantations, worked by African slaves. Cherokees built gristmills, sawmills, and blacksmith
shops. They encouraged missionaries to set up schools to educate their children in the English language. They used a syllabary
(characters representing syllables) developed by Sequoyah (a Cherokee) to encourage literacy as well. In the midst of the
many changes that followed contact with the Europeans, the Cherokee worked to retain their cultural identity operating "on
a basis of harmony, consensus, and community with a distaste for hierarchy and individual power."
In 1822, the treasurer of the
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions reported on some of the changes that had been made:
It used to be said, a few years since, with the greatest of confidence, and is sometimes repeated
even now, that "Indians can never acquire the habit of labour." Facts abundantly disprove this opinion. Some Indians not only
provide an abundant supply of food for their families, by the labour of their own hands, but have a surplus of several hundred
bushels of corn, with which they procure clothing, furniture, and foreign articles of luxury.
Two leaders played central roles
in the destiny of the Cherokee. Both had fought alongside Andrew Jackson in a war against a faction of the Creek Nation which
became known as the Creek War (1813-1814). Both had used what they learned from the whites to become slave holders and rich
men. Both were descended from Anglo-Americans who moved into Indian territory to trade and
ended up marrying Indian women and having families. Both were fiercely committed to the welfare of the Cherokee people.
Major Ridge and John Ross shared
a vision of a strong Cherokee Nation that could maintain its separate culture and still coexist with its white neighbors.
In 1825, they worked together to create a new national capitol for their tribe, at New Echota in Georgia. In 1827, they proposed a written constitution that would put the tribe
on an equal footing with the whites in terms of self government. The constitution, which was adopted by the Cherokee National
Council, was modeled on that of the United States.
Both men were powerful speakers and well able to articulate their opposition to the constant pressure from settlers and the
federal government to relocate to the west. Ridge had first made a name for himself opposing a Cherokee proposal for removal
in 1807. In 1824 John Ross, on a delegation to Washington, D.C. wrote:
We appeal to the magnanimity of the American Congress for justice, and the protection of the
rights, liberties, and lives, of the Cherokee people. We claim it from the United
States, by the strongest obligations, which imposes it upon them by treaties; and we expect
it from them under that memorable declaration, "that all men are created equal."
Not all tribal elders or tribal
members approved of the ways in which many in the tribe had adopted white cultural practices and they sought refuge from white
interference by moving into what is now northwestern Arkansas.
In the 1820s, the numbers of Cherokees moving to Arkansas
territory increased. Others spoke out on the dangers of Cherokee participation in Christian churches, and schools, and predicted
an end to traditional practices. They believed that these accommodations to white culture would weaken the tribe's hold on
Even as Major Ridge and John Ross
were planning for the future of New Echota and an educated, well-governed tribe, the state of Georgia increased its pressure on the federal government to release Cherokee lands
for white settlement. Some settlers did not wait for approval. They simply moved in and began surveying and claiming territory
for themselves. A popular song in Georgia
at the time included this refrain:
All I ask in this creation
Is a pretty little wife and a big plantation
Way up yonder in the Cherokee Nation.
|Indian Removal and Trail of Tears Map
|(Map) Indian Removal and Trail of Tears
"You cannot remain where you now are...."
The Cherokees might have been
able to hold out against renegade settlers for a long time. But two circumstances combined to severely limit the possibility
of staying put. In 1828 Andrew Jackson became president of the United States. In 1830--the same year
the Indian Removal Act was passed--gold was found on Cherokee lands. There was no holding back the tide of Georgians, Carolinians,
Virginians, and Alabamians seeking instant wealth. Georgia
held lotteries to give Cherokee land and gold rights to whites. The state had already declared all laws of the Cherokee Nation
null and void after June 1, 1830, and also prohibited Cherokees from conducting tribal business, contracting, testifying against
whites in court, or mining for gold. Cherokee leaders successfully challenged Georgia
in the U.S. Supreme Count, but President Jackson refused to enforce the Court's decision.
Most Cherokees wanted to stay
on their land. Chief Womankiller, an old man, summed up their views:
My sun of existence is now fast approaching to its setting, and my aged bones will soon be
laid underground, and I wish them laid in the bosom of this earth we have received from our fathers who had it from the Great
Yet some Cherokees felt that it
was futile to fight any longer. By 1832, Major Ridge, his son John, and nephews Elias Boudinot and Stand Watie had concluded
that incursions on Cherokee lands had become so severe, and abandonment by the federal government so certain, that moving
was the only way to survive as a nation. A new treaty accepting removal would at least compensate the Cherokees for their
land before they lost everything. These men organized themselves into a Treaty Party within the Cherokee community. They presented
a resolution to discuss such a treaty to the Cherokee National Council in October 1832. It was defeated. John Ross, now Principal
Chief, was the voice of the majority opposing any further cessions of land. The two men who had worked so closely together
were now bitterly divided.
The U.S. government submitted a new treaty to the Cherokee National Council in 1835.
President Jackson sent a letter outlining the treaty terms and urging its approval:
My Friends: I have long viewed your condition with great interest. For many years I have been
acquainted with your people, and under all variety of circumstances in peace and war. You are now placed in the midst of a
white population. Your peculiar customs, which regulated your intercourse with one another, have been abrogated by the great
political community among which you live; and you are now subject to the same laws which govern the other citizens of Georgia and Alabama.
I have no motive, my friends, to deceive you. I am sincerely desirous to promote your welfare.
Listen to me, therefore, while I tell you that you cannot remain where you now are. Circumstances that cannot be controlled,
and which are beyond the reach of human laws, render it impossible that you can flourish in the midst of a civilized community.
You have but one remedy within your reach. And that is, to remove to the West and join your countrymen, who are already established
there. And the sooner you do this the sooner you will commence your career of improvement and prosperity.
John Ross persuaded the council
not to approve the treaty. He continued to negotiate with the federal government, trying to strike a better bargain for the
Cherokee people. Each side--the Treaty Party and Ross's supporters--accused the other of working for personal financial gain.
Ross, however, had clearly won the passionate support of the majority of the Cherokee nation, and Cherokee resistance to removal
In December 1835, the U.S. resubmitted the treaty to a meeting of 300 to 500 Cherokees
at New Echota. Older now, Major Ridge spoke of his reasons for supporting the treaty:
I am one of the native sons of these wild woods. I have hunted the deer and turkey here, more
than fifty years. I have fought your battles, have defended your truth and honesty, and fair trading. The Georgians have shown
a grasping spirit lately; they have extended their laws, to which we are unaccustomed, which harass our braves and make the
children suffer and cry. I know the Indians have an older title than theirs. We obtained the land from the living God above.
They got their title from the British. Yet they are strong and we are weak. We are few, they are many. We cannot remain here
in safety and comfort. I know we love the graves of our fathers. We can never forget these homes, but an unbending, iron necessity
tells us we must leave them. I would willingly die to preserve them, but any forcible effort to keep them will cost us our
lands, our lives and the lives of our children. There is but one path of safety, one road to future existence as a Nation.
That path is open before you. Make a treaty of cession. Give up these lands and go over beyond the great Father of Waters.
Twenty men, none of them elected
officials of the tribe, signed the treaty, ceding all Cherokee territory east of the Mississippi
to the U.S. in exchange for $5 million and new homelands in Indian Territory. Major Ridge is reported to have said that he was signing his own death warrant.
The Treaty of New Echota was widely
protested by Cherokees and by whites. The tribal members who opposed relocation considered Major Ridge and the others who
signed the treaty traitors. After an intense debate, the U.S. Senate approved the Treaty of New Echota on May 17, 1836, by
a margin of one vote. It was signed into law on May 23. As John Ross worked to negotiate a better treaty, the Cherokees tried
to sustain some sort of normal life--even as white settlers carved up their lands and drove them from their homes. Removal
had become inevitable. It was simply a matter now of how it would be accomplished.
|Indian Removal and Trail of Tears Map
|High Resolution Map of Indian Removal and Trail of Tears
"Every Cherokee man, woman or child must
be in motion..."
For two years after the Treaty
of New Echota, John Ross and the Cherokees continued to seek concessions from the federal government, which remained disorganized
in its plans for removal. Only the eager settlers with their eyes on the Cherokee lands moved with determination. At the end
of December 1837, the government warned Cherokee that the clause in the Treaty of New Echota requiring that they should "remove
to their new homes within two years from the ratification of the treaty" would be enforced. In May, President Van Buren sent
Gen. Winfield Scott to get the job done. On May 10, 1838, General Scott issued the following proclamation:
Cherokees! The President of the United States has sent me, with a powerful army, to cause you, in obedience
to the Treaty of 1835, to join that part of your people who are already established in prosperity, on the other side of the
Mississippi. . . . The full moon of May is already on the
wane, and before another shall have passed away, every Cherokee man, woman and child . . . must be in motion to join their
brethren in the far West.
Federal troops and state militias
began to move the Cherokees into stockades. In spite of warnings to troops to treat them kindly, the roundup proved harrowing.
A missionary described what he found at one of the collection camps in June:
The Cherokees are nearly all prisoners. They have been dragged from their houses, and encamped
at the forts and military posts, all over the nation. In Georgia,
especially, multitudes were allowed no time to take any thing with them except the clothes they had on. Well-furnished houses
were left prey to plunderers, who, like hungry wolves, follow in the trail of the captors. These wretches rifle the houses
and strip the helpless, unoffending owners of all they have on earth.
Three groups left in the summer,
traveling from present-day Chattanooga by rail, boat, and
wagon, primarily on the water route, but as many as 15,000 people still awaited removal. Sanitation was deplorable. Food,
medicine, clothing, even coffins for the dead, were in short supply. Water was scarce and often contaminated. Diseases raged
through the camps. Many died.
Those travelling over land were
prevented from leaving in August due to a summer drought. The first detachments set forth only to find no water in the springs
and they returned back to their camps. The remaining Cherokees asked to postpone removal until the fall. The delay was granted,
provided they remain in the camps until travel resumed. The Army also granted John Ross's request that the Cherokees manage
their own removal. The government provided wagons, horses, and oxen; Ross made arrangements for food and other necessities.
In October and November, 12 detachments of 1,000 men, women, children, including more than 100 slaves, set off on an 800 mile-journey
overland to the west. Five thousand horses, and 654 wagons, each drawn by 6 horses or mules, went along. Each group was led
by a respected Cherokee leader and accompanied by a doctor, and sometimes a missionary. Those riding in the wagons were usually
only the sick, the aged, children, and nursing mothers with infants.
The northern route, chosen because
of dependable ferries over the Ohio and Mississippi
Rivers and a well-travelled road between the two rivers, turned out to
be the more difficult. Heavy autumn rains and hundreds of wagons on the muddy route made roads nearly impassable; little grazing
and game could be found to supplement meager rations. Two-thirds of the Cherokees were trapped between the ice-bound Ohio and Mississippi rivers during
January. A traveler from Maine happened upon one of the caravans in Kentucky:
We found the road literally filled with the procession for about three miles in length. The
sick and feeble were carried in waggons . . . a great many ride horseback and multitudes go on foot—even aged females,
apparently nearly ready to drop into the grave, were traveling with heavy burdens attached to the back—on the sometimes
frozen ground, and sometimes muddy streets, with no covering for the feet except what nature had given them.
A Cherokee survivor later recalled:
Long time we travel on way to new land. People feel bad when they leave Old Nation. Women cry
and made sad wails. Children cry and many men cry, and all look sad like when friends die, but they say nothing and just put
heads down and keep on go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much.
In 1972, Robert K. Thomas, a professor
of anthropology from the University of Chicago
and an elder in the Cherokee tribe, told the following story to a few friends:
Let me tell you this. My grandmother was a little girl in Georgia when the soldiers came to her house to take her family away. . . . The
soldiers were pushing her family away from their land as fast as they could. She ran back into the house before a soldier
could catch her and grabbed her [pet] goose and hid it in her apron. Her parents knew she had the goose and let her keep it.
When she had bread, she would dip a little in water and slip it to the goose in her apron.
Well, they walked a long time, you know. A long time. Some of my relatives didn't make it.
It was a bad winter and it got really cold in Illinois.
But my grandmother kept her goose alive.
One day they walked down a deep icy gulch and my grandmother could see down below her a long
white road. No one wanted to go over the road, but the soldiers made them go, so they headed across. When my grandmother and
her parents were in the middle of the road, a great black snake started hissing down the river, roaring toward the Cherokees.
The road rose up in front of her in a thunder and came down again, and when it came down all of the people in front of her
were gone, including her parents.
My grandmother said she didn't remember getting to camp that night, but she was with her aunt
and uncle. Out on the white road she had been so terrified, she squeezed her goose hard and suffocated it in her apron, but
her aunt and uncle let her keep it until she fell asleep. During the night they took it out of her apron.
On March 24, 1839, the last detachments
arrived in the west. Some of them had left their homeland on September 20, 1838. No one knows exactly how many died during
the journey. Missionary doctor Elizur Butler, who accompanied one of the detachments, estimated that nearly one fifth of the
Cherokee population died. The trip was especially hard on infants, children, and the elderly. An unknown number of slaves
also died on the Trail of Tears. The U.S.
government never paid the $5 million promised to the Cherokees in the Treaty of New Echota.
|Indian Removal and Trail of Tears Map
|Indian Removal and Trail of Tears Map: From Vast Territory to Small Reservation
(Sources listed at bottom of page)
Recommended Viewing: We Shall Remain (PBS) (DVDs) (420 minutes). Midwest Book Review: We Shall Remain is a three-DVD thinpack set
collecting five documentaries from the acclaimed PBS history series "American Experience", about Native American leaders including
Massasoit, Tecumseh, Tenskwatawa, Major Ridge, Geronimo, and Fools Crow, all who did everything they could to resist being
forcibly removed from their land and preserve their culture. Continued below...
ranged from military action to diplomacy, spirituality, or even legal and political means. The stories of these individual
leaders span four hundred years; collectively, they give a portrait of an oft-overlooked yet crucial side of American history,
and carry the highest recommendation for public library as well as home DVD collections. Special features include behind-the-scenes
footage, a thirty-minute preview film, materials for educators and librarians, four ReelNative films of Native Americans sharing
their personal stories, and three Native Now films about modern-day issues facing Native Americans. 7 hours. "Viewers will
be amazed." "If you're keeping score, this program ranks among the best TV documentaries ever made." and "Reminds us that
true glory lies in the honest histories of people, not the manipulated histories of governments. This is the stuff they kept
from us." --Clif Garboden, The Boston Phoenix.
Reading: Trail of Tears: The Rise and
Fall of the Cherokee Nation. Library
Journal: One of the many ironies of U.S. government policy toward Indians in the early 1800s is
that it persisted in removing to the West those who had most successfully adapted to European values. As whites encroached
on Cherokee land, many Native leaders responded by educating their children, learning English, and developing plantations.
Such a leader was Ridge, who had fought with Andrew Jackson against the British. Continued below...
As he and other
Cherokee leaders grappled with the issue of moving, the land-hungry Georgia legislators, with the aid of Jackson,
succeeded in ousting the Cherokee from their land, forcing them to make the arduous journey West on the infamous "Trail of
Tears." Mary B. Davis, Museum of American
Indian Lib., New York, Copyright 1988 Reed Business Information, Inc.
Viewing: The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy (2006), Starring: James Earl Jones and Wes Studi; Director: Chip Richie, Steven R. Heape.
Description: The Trail Of Tears: Cherokee Legacy is an engaging two
hour documentary exploring one of America's darkest periods in which President
Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830 consequently transported Native Americans of the Cherokee Nation to the bleak
and unsupportive Oklahoma Territory
in the year 1838. Deftly presented by the talents of Wes Studi (The Last of the Mohicans, Dances With Wolves, Bury My Heart
at Wounded Knee, Crazy Horse, 500 Nations, Comanche Moon), James Earl Jones, and James Garner.
The Trail Of
Tears: Cherokee Legacy also includes narrations of famed celebrities Crystal Gayle, Johnt Buttrum, Governor Douglas Wilder,
and Steven R. Heape. Includes numerous Cherokee Nation members which add authenticity to the production… A welcome DVD
addition to personal, school, and community library Native American history collections. The Trail Of Tears: Cherokee Legacy
is strongly recommended for its informative and tactful presentation of such a tragic and controversial historical occurrence
in 19th century American history.
Reading: After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty, 1839-1880. Description: This powerful narrative traces the social, cultural, and political history of the Cherokee Nation during the forty-year
period after its members were forcibly removed from the southern Appalachians and resettled in what is now Oklahoma. In this master work, completed just before his death, William McLoughlin not only
explains how the Cherokees rebuilt their lives and society, but also recounts their fight to govern themselves as a separate
nation within the borders of the United States.
by whites as one of the 'civilized tribes', the Cherokees had their own constitution (modeled after that of the United
States), elected officials, and legal system. Once re-settled, they attempted to reestablish
these institutions and continued their long struggle for self-government under their own laws—an idea that met with
bitter opposition from frontier politicians, settlers, ranchers, and business leaders. After an extremely divisive fight within
their own nation during the Civil War, Cherokees faced internal political conflicts as well as the destructive impact of an
influx of new settlers and the expansion of the railroad. McLoughlin conveys its history to the year 1880, when the nation's
fight for the right to govern itself ended in defeat at the hands of Congress.
Reading: The Cherokee Removal:
A Brief History with Documents (The Bedford
Series in History and Culture) (Paperback). Description: This book tells the compelling story of American ethnic cleansing
against the Cherokee nation through an admirable combination of primary documents and the editors' analyses. Perdue and Green
begin with a short but sophisticated history of the Cherokee from their first interaction with Europeans to their expulsion
from the East to the West; a region where Georgia, North
Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama
connect Continued below...
is directed through a variety of documents commenting on several important themes: the "civilizing" of the Cherokee (i.e.
their adoption of European culture), Georgia's leading role in pressuring the Cherokee off their land and demanding the federal
government to remove them by force, the national debate between promoters and opponents of expulsion, the debate within the
Cherokee nation, and a brief look at the deportation or forced removal. Conveyed in the voices of the Cherokee and the
framers of the debate, it allows the reader to appreciate the complexity of the situation. Pro-removal Americans even made
racist judgments of the Cherokee but cast and cloaked their arguments in humanitarian rhetoric. Pro-emigration Cherokee harshly
criticize the Cherokee leadership as corrupt and possessing a disdain for traditional Cherokee culture. American defenders
and the Cherokee leadership deploy legal and moral arguments in a futile effort to forestall American violence. “A compelling
and stirring read.”
Recommended Reading: The Cherokee Nation:
A History. Description:
Conley's book, "The Cherokee Nation: A History" is an eminently readable, concise but thoughtful account of the Cherokee
people from prehistoric times to the present day. The book is formatted in such a way as to make it an ideal text for high
school and college classes. At the end of each chapter is a source list and suggestions for further reading. Also at the end
of each chapter is an unusual but helpful feature- a glossary of key terms. The book contains interesting maps, photographs
and drawings, along with a list of chiefs for the various factions of the Cherokee tribe and nation. Continued below...
to being easily understood, a principal strength of the book is that the author questions some traditional beliefs and sources
about the Cherokee past without appearing to be a revisionist or an individual with an agenda in his writing. One such example
is when Conley tells the story of Alexander Cuming, an Englishman who took seven Cherokee men with him to England
in 1730. One of the Cherokee, Oukanekah, is recorded as having said to the King of England: "We look upon the Great King George
as the Sun, and as our Father, and upon ourselves as his children. For though we are red, and you are white our hands and
hearts are joined together..." Conley wonders if Oukanekah actually said those words and points out that the only version
we have of this story is the English version. There is nothing to indicate if Oukanekah spoke in English or Cherokee, or if
his words were recorded at the time they were spoken or were written down later. Conley also points out that in Cherokee culture,
the Sun was considered female, so it is curious that King George would be looked upon as the Sun. The "redness" of Native
American skin was a European perception. The Cherokee would have described themselves as brown. But Conley does not overly
dwell on these things. He continues to tell the story using the sources available. The skill of Conley in communicating his
ideas never diminishes. This book is highly recommended as a good place to start the study of Cherokee history. It serves
as excellent reference material and belongs in the library of anyone serious about the study of Native Americans.
Viewing: The Great Indian Wars: 1540-1890 (2009) (230 minutes). Description: The year 1540 was a crucial turning point in American history. The Great
Indian Wars were incited by Francisco Vazquez de Coronado when his expedition to the Great Plains
launched the inevitable 350 year struggle between the white man and the American Indians. This series defines the struggles
of practically every major American Indian tribe. It is also a fascinating
study of the American Indians' beginnings on the North American Continent, while reflecting the factional splits as well
as alliances. Continued below...
Indian Wars is more than a documentary about the
battles and conflicts, wars and warfare, fighting tactics and strategies, and weapons of the American Indians. You will journey
with the Indians and witness how they adapted from the bow to the rifle, and view the European introduction of the horse to
the Americas and how the Indians adapted and perfected it for both hunting and
warfare. This fascinating documentary also reflects the migration patterns--including numerous maps--and the evolution
of every major tribe, as well as the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of each tribe. Spanning nearly 4 hours and filled
with spectacular paintings and photographs, this documentary is action-packed from start to finish.
Sources: John Ehle, Trail of Tears:
The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation (New York: Doubleday, 1988), 177; D. W. Meinig, The Shaping of America: A Geographical
Perspective on 500 Years of History, Vol. 2, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), 88;
Gary E. Moulton, ed., Papers of Chief John Ross, (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985), I:76-78; Baptist Missionary
Magazine 18 (Sept 1838); National Park Service; Library of Congress; 1835 Treaty of New Echota; 1830 Indian
Removal Act; Winfield Scott's Address to the Cherokee Nation, May 10, 1838; Winfield Scott's Order to U.S. Troops assigned
to the Cherokee Removal, May 17, 1838; Removal of the Indians, by Lewis Cass, January 1830; Cherokee Indian Removal Debate
U.S. Senate, April 15-17, 1830; Elias Boudinot’s editorials in The Cherokee Phoenix, 1829-31; Trail Of Tears National
Historic Trail; New Echota Historic Site; Trail of Tears Commemorative Park, Hopkinsville KY; Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma; Eastern
Band of Cherokee Indians, North Carolina; Burnett, John G. 1978 "The Cherokee Removal through the Eyes of a Private Soldier."
Journal of Cherokee Studies 3 (Summer): 180-85; Buttrick, Daniel S. 1838-39 Diary. Houghton Library, Harvard
University; Cannon, B. B. 1978 "An Overland
Journey to the West (October-December 1837)." Journal of Cherokee Studies 3 (Summer): 166-73; Deas, Lt. Edward 1978 "Emigrating
to the West by Boat (April-May 1838)." Journal of Cherokee Studies 3 (Summer): 158-63; Foreman, Grant 1932 Indian Removal
-The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; _____. 1932 The
Five Civilized Tribes: A Brief History and a Century of Progress. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; Henegar, H. B.
1978 "Recollections of the Cherokee Removal." Journal of Cherokee Studies 3 (Summer): 177-79; Hudson, Charles 1976 The Southeastern
Indians. Knoxville: University
of Tennessee Press; King, Duane H., and E. Raymond Evans, ed. 1978 "The
Trail of Tears: Primary Documents of the Cherokee Removal." Journal of Cherokee Studies 3 (Summer): 131-90; King, Duane H.
1988 Cherokee Heritage: Official Guidebook to the Museum of the Cherokee Indian. Cherokee, NC: Cherokee Communications; Lightfoot,
B. B. 1962 "The Cherokee Emigrants in Missouri, 1837 -1839."
Missouri Historical Review 56 (January): 156-67; Morrow, W. I. I.
1839 Diary. Western Historical Manuscript Collection, University of Missouri, Columbia; Mooney, James
1975 Historical Sketch of the Cherokee. Chicago: Aldine Publishing
Company; Moulton, Gary E. 1978 John Ross: Cherokee Chief. Athens: University of Georgia Press; Perdue, Theda
1989 The Cherokee. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. Prucha.
Francis Paul 1969 "Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Policy: A Reassessment." Journal of American History 56 (December): 527-39;
Scott, Winfield 1978 "If Not Rejoicing at Least in Comfort." Journal of Cherokee Studies 3 (Summer): 138-42; Starr, Emmet
1921 History of the Cherokee Indians and Their Legends and Folk Lore. Oklahoma City:
The Warden Company; Thornton, Russell 1984 "Cherokee Population Losses during the Trail of Tears: A New Perspective and a
New Estimate." Ethnohistory 31 (4): 289-300. 1990 The Cherokees: A Population History. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska
Press; Wilkins, Thurman 1986 Cherokee Tragedy: The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People. Norman:
University of Oklahoma
Press; Woodward, Grace Steele 1963 The Cherokees. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.