Letter from Chief Engineer Stimers, USS Monitor, to Captain John Ericsson, giving an account of the
Hampton Roads, March 9, 1862.
MY DEAR SIR: After a stormy passage, which proved
us to be the finest seaboat I was ever in, we fought the Merrimack for more than three hours this forenoon and sent
her back to Norfolk in a sinking condition. Ironclad against ironclad. We maneuvered about the bay here and went at each other
with mutual fierceness. I consider that both ships were well fought. We were struck 22 times—pilot house twice, turret
9 times, side armor 8 times, deck 3 times. The only vulnerable point was the pilot house. One of your great logs (9 by 12
inches thick) is broken in two. The shot struck just outside of where the captain had his eye, and it has disabled him by
destroying his left eye and temporarily blinding the other. The log is not quite in two, but is broken and pressed inward
1 _ inches. She tried to run us down and sink us, as she did the Cumberland yesterday, but
she got the worst of it. Her bow passed over our deck and our sharp upper edged side cut through the light iron shoe upon
her stem and well into her oak. She will not try that again. She gave us a tremendous thump, but did not injure us in the
least. We are just able to find the point of contact.
The turret is a splendid structure. I do not think much of the
shield, but the pendulums are fine things, though I can not tell you how they would stand the shot, as they were not hit.
You are very correct in your estimate of the effect of shot upon
the man on the inside of the turret when it was struck near him. Three men were knocked down, of whom I was one; the other
two had to be carried below, but I was not disabled at all and the others recovered before the battle was over. Captain Worden
stationed himself at the pilot house, Greene fired the guns, and I turned the turret until the captain was disabled and was
relieved by Greene, when I managed the turret myself, Master Stodder having been one of the two stunned men.
Captain Ericsson, I congratulate you upon your great success.
Thousands have this day blessed you. I have heard whole crews cheer you. Every man feels that you have saved this place to
the nation by furnishing us with the means to whip an ironclad frigate that was, until our arrival, having it all her own
way with our most powerful vessels.
I am, with much esteem, very truly, yours,
ALBAN C. STIMERS,
Captain J. ERICSSON,
No. 95 Franklin Street, New York
Source: Official Records of the Union and Confederate
Navies in the War of the Rebellion. Series 1, vol. 7 (Washington; Government Printing Office, 1898): 26-27.
Reading: Civil War Ironclads: The U.S. Navy and Industrial Mobilization (Johns Hopkins
Studies in the History of Technology). Description: "In this impressively researched and broadly conceived study, William
Roberts offers the first comprehensive study of one of the most ambitious programs in the history of naval shipbuilding, the
Union's ironclad program during the Civil War. Continued below...
Perhaps more importantly, Roberts also provides an invaluable framework for understanding and analyzing
military-industrial relations, an insightful commentary on the military acquisition process, and a cautionary tale on the
perils of the pursuit of perfection and personal recognition." - Robert Angevine, Journal of Military History "Roberts's study,
illuminating on many fronts, is a welcome addition to our understanding of the Union's industrial mobilization during the
Civil War and its inadvertent effects on the postwar U.S. Navy." - William M. McBride, Technology and Culture"
Reading: Lincoln's Navy: The Ships, Men and Organization, 1861-65 (Hardcover). Review: Naval historian Donald L. Canney provides
a good overview of the U.S. Navy during the Civil War, describing life at sea, weapons, combat, tactics, leaders, and of course,
the ships themselves. He reveals the war as a critical turning point in naval technology, with ironclads (such as the Monitor)
demonstrating their superiority to wooden craft and seaborne guns (such as those developed by John Dahlgren) making important
advances. Continued below...
The real reason to own this oversize book, however, is for the images: more than 200 of them, including
dozens of contemporary photographs of the vessels that fought to preserve the Union. There are maps and portraits, too; this fine collection of pictures brings vividness
to its subject that can't be found elsewhere.
Reading: A History of Ironclads: The Power of Iron over Wood. Description: This
landmark book documents the dramatic history of Civil War ironclads and reveals how ironclad warships revolutionized naval
warfare. Author John V. Quarstein explores in depth the impact of ironclads during the Civil War and their colossal effect
on naval history. The Battle of Hampton Roads was one of history's greatest naval engagements. Over the course of two days
in March 1862, this Civil War conflict decided the fate of all the world's navies. It was the first battle between ironclad
warships, and the 25,000 sailors, soldiers and civilians who witnessed the battle vividly understood what history would soon
confirm: wars waged on the seas would never be the same. Continued below…
About the Author: John V. Quarstein is an award-winning author and historian. He is director
of the Virginia
War Museum in Newport News and chief historical advisor for The Mariners' Museum's new USS Monitor Center
(opened March 2007). Quarstein has authored eleven books and dozens of articles on American, military and Civil War history,
and has appeared in documentaries for PBS, BBC, The History Channel and Discovery Channel.
Reading: Rebels and Yankees:
Naval Battles of the Civil War (Hardcover).
Description: Naval Battles of the Civil War, written by acclaimed Civil War historian Chester G. Hearn, focuses on the maritime
battles fought between the Confederate Rebels and the Union forces in waters off the eastern seaboard and the great rivers
of the United States during the Civil
War. Continued below...
Since very few books have been written on this subject, this volume provides a fascinating and vital portrayal
of the one of the most important conflicts in United States history. Naval Battles
of the Civil War is lavishly illustrated with rare contemporary photographs, detailed artworks, and explanatory maps, and
the text is a wonderful blend of technical information, fast-flowing narrative, and informed commentary.
Reading: Ironclad Down: USS Merrimack-CSS Virginia from Design to Destruction (Hardcover). Description: The result of more than fifteen years
of research, Ironclad Down is a treasure trove of detailed information about one of history s most famous vessels. Describing
the fascinating people--Stephen Russell Mallory, John Mercer Brooke, John Luke Porter, et al.--who conceived, designed and
built one of the world's first ironclads as well as describing the ship itself, Carl Park offers both the most thoroughly
detailed, in-depth analysis to date of the actual architecture of the Virginia
and a fascinating, colorful chapter of Civil War history.
Reading: Reign of Iron: The Story of the First Battling Ironclads, the Monitor and the Merrimack. From Publishers Weekly: The Monitor-Merrimack showdown may be one
of the Civil War’s most overhyped chestnuts: the two ships were by no means the first ironclads, and their long awaited
confrontation proved an anticlimactic draw, their cannon fire clanging harmlessly off each other’s hulls. Still, the
author of this lively history manages to bring out the story’s dramatic elements. Nelson, author of the Revolution at
Sea series of age-of-sail adventure novels, knows how to narrate a naval crisis. He gives a harrowing account of the Merrimack’s initial onslaught, in which it destroyed two wooden
Union warships in a bloody and chaotic battle the day before the Monitor arrived, and of the Monitor’s nightmarish final
hours as it foundered in a storm at sea. Continued below…
is his retelling of the feverish race between North and South to beat the other side to the punch with their respective wonder
ships. He delves into every aspect of the ships’ innovative design and construction, and draws vivid portraits of the
colorful characters who crafted them, especially the brilliant naval architect John Ericsson, one of that epic breed of engineer-entrepreneurs
who defined the 19th century. The resulting blend of skillful storytelling and historical detail will please Civil War and
naval engineering buffs alike.