|American Civil War HOMEPAGE
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|American Civil War: The Soldier's Life
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|NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY
|North Carolina Civil War History
|North Carolina American Civil War Statistics, Battles, History
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|Western North Carolina and the American Civil War
|Western North Carolina: Civil War Troops, Regiments, Units
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|HISTORY OF THE CHEROKEE INDIANS
|Cherokee Indian Heritage, History, Culture, Customs, Ceremonies, and Religion
|Cherokee Indians: American Civil War
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Original Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights to the Constitution
A powerful piece of paper: "The Bill of Rights"
|Original Bill of Rights
|The Original Bill of Rights
Source: The Bill of Rights, September 25, 1789; General Records
of the United States Government; Record Group 11; National Archives.
Recommended Reading: The
Constitution of the United States of America, with the Bill of Rights and all of the Amendments; The Declaration of Independence;
and the Articles of Confederation, by Thomas Jefferson (Author), Second Continental Congress (Author), Constitutional
Convention (Author). Description: Collected in one
affordable volume are the most important documents of the United States of America: The Constitution of the United States of America, with the Bill of Rights and all
of the Amendments; The Declaration of Independence; and the Articles of Confederation. These three documents are the basis
for our entire way of life. Every citizen should have a copy. "It's living history."
Reading: Origins of the Bill of Rights (Yale
Contemporary Law Series). From Library Journal: Constitutional historian
Levy, author of 36 books concerning American politics and constitutional issues (e.g., The Palladium of Justice: Origins of
Trial by Jury), provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the origins of the Bill of Rights and other constitutional
provisions that protect rights. His historical analysis frames fundamental principles of "liberty" and "rights" by interpreting
each of the first nine amendments to the Constitution and demonstrating differences between 18th-century American ideals and
English common-law practice. Continued below...
His informative arguments in this important work concern nature and the sources of the Bill of Rights within
American democracy, providing understanding for both scholars and citizens. Levy's approach to these controversial values,
which protect the rights of the people, will be the source of future legal and public discussion. A significant contribution
to understanding the Bill of Rights; highly recommended.
Recommended Reading: The Bill of Rights: Creation and Reconstruction. Review: "The Bill of Rights stands as the high temple of our constitutional order--America's Parthenon--and yet we lack a clear view of it,"
Akhil Reed Amar writes in his introduction to The Bill of Rights. "Instead of being studied holistically, the Bill has been
broken up ... with each segment examined in isolation." With The Bill of Rights, Amar aims to put the pieces back together
and take a longer view of a document few Americans truly understand. Part history of the Bill, part analysis of the Founding
Fathers' intentions, this book provides a unique interpretation of the Constitution. Continued below...
It is Amar's
hypothesis that, contrary to popular belief, the Bill of Rights was not originally constructed to protect the minority against
the majority, but rather to empower popular majorities. It wasn't until 19th-century post-Civil War reconstruction and the
introduction of the 14th Amendment that the notion of individual rights took hold. Prior to that, the various amendments to
the Constitution that make up the Bill of Rights were more about the structure of government and designed to protect citizens
against a self-interested regime. Yet so great has
been the impact of the 14th Amendment on modern legal thought that the Bill's original intentions have almost been forgotten.
Through skillful interpretation and solid research, Amar both reconstructs the original thinking of the Founding Fathers and
chronicles the radical changes that have occurred since the inclusion of the 14th Amendment in the Bill of Rights. The results
make for provocative reading no matter where you stand on the political spectrum.
Recommended Reading: America's Constitution: A Biography (Hardcover). Publishers Weekly: Starred
Review. You can read the U.S. Constitution, including its 27 amendments, in about a half-hour, but it takes decades of study
to understand how this blueprint for our nation's government came into existence. Amar, a 20-year veteran of the Yale Law School
faculty, has that understanding, steeped in the political history of the 1780s, when dissatisfaction with the Articles of
Confederation led to a constitutional convention in Philadelphia,
which produced a document of wonderful compression and balance creating an indissoluble union. Amar examines in turn each
article of the Constitution, explaining how the framers drew on English models, existing state constitutions and other sources
in structuring the three branches of the federal government and defining the relationship of the that government to the states.
on each of the amendments, from the original Bill of Rights to changes in the rules for presidential succession. The book
squarely confronts America's involvement with slavery, which the original Constitution
facilitated in ways the author carefully explains. Scholarly, reflective and brimming with ideas, this book is miles removed
from an arid, academic exercise in textual analysis. Amar evokes the passions and tumult that marked the Constitution's birth
and its subsequent revisions. Only rarely do you find a book that embodies scholarship at its most solid and invigorating;
this is such a book.
Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making
of the Constitution. Description: Imagine, for a preposterous moment, that 55 national leaders convened to
write a document to guide the country for hundreds of years. It seems unlikely--given that our current contingent of so-called
leaders can't agree on how to balance a checkbook--that they could reach consensus on such issues as the allotment of congressional
seats. The political and ideological issues that faced the creators of the Constitution were similar in some ways to those
at play today. And in some ways they were vastly different ones. Jack Rakove, a history professor at Stanford University,
has in this book framed the process that led to the drafting of the constitution in its historical and political context to
offer insight into the difficulty of interpreting that most influential of documents.
Lincoln and Chief Justice Taney: Slavery, Secession,
and the President's War Powers, by James F. Simon (Simon & Schuster). Publishers Weekly: This surprisingly taut and gripping book by NYU law professor Simon
(What Kind of Nation) examines the limits of presidential prerogative during the Civil War. Lincoln and Supreme Court Chief
Justice Roger Taney saw eye to eye on certain matters; both, for example, disliked slavery. But beginning in 1857, when Lincoln criticized Taney's decision in the Dred Scott case, the pair
began to spar. They diverged further once Lincoln became president when Taney insisted that
secession was constitutional and preferable to bloodshed, and blamed the Civil War on Lincoln.
In 1861, Taney argued that Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus was illegal. This
holding was, Simon argues, "a clarion call for the president to respect the civil liberties of American citizens." In an 1862 group of cases, Taney joined a minority opinion that Lincoln lacked the authority to order the seizure of Southern ships. Had Taney had the chance,
suggests Simon, he would have declared the Emancipation Proclamation unconstitutional; he and Lincoln agreed that the Constitution
left slavery up to individual states, but Lincoln argued that
the president's war powers trumped states' rights. Simon's focus on Lincoln and Taney makes for a dramatic, charged narrative—and
the focus on presidential war powers makes this historical study extremely timely.
Recommended Reading: The Heritage Guide to the Constitution, by Edwin Meese (Author), Matthew Spalding (Editor),
David F. Forte (Editor), Matthew Spalding (Author), David F. Forte (Author) (Hardcover). Description: This guide is the first of its kind, and presents the U.S. Constitution as never
before, including a clause-by-clause analysis of the document, each amendment and relevant court case, and the documents that
serve as the foundation of the Constitution. About the Authors: Edwin Meese III served as the 75th Attorney General of the
United States under President Reagan.
The Chairman of the Editorial Advisory Board, he is a distinguished legal expert and holds the Ronald Reagan
Chair in Public Policy at the Heritage Foundation; Executive Editor Dr. Matthew Spalding is an expert in and teaches constitutional
history, is an Adjunct Fellow of the Claremont Institute, and is the Director of the B. Kenneth Simon Center for American
Studies at the Heritage Foundation; Senior Editor Dr. David F. Forte is a widely published legal scholar, a former Chief Counsel
to the United States Delegation to the United Nations, and the Charles R. Emrick, Jr. Â—Calfee Halter & Griswold
Professor of Law at Cleveland State University.
Recommended Reading: One Nation, Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution. Description: Is secession legal under the United States Constitution? "One Nation,
Indivisible?" takes a fresh look at this old question by evaluating the key arguments of such anti-secession men as Daniel
Webster and Abraham Lincoln, in light of reason, historical fact, the language of the Constitution, and the words of America's
Founding Fathers. Modern anti-secession arguments are also examined, as are the questions of why Americans are becoming interested
in secession once again, whether secession can be avoided, and how an American state might peacefully secede from the Union. Continued below…
government's growth of power at the expense of individuals and natural human communities has been the trend so long now that
it has seemed inevitable. But thoughtful people of late have been rediscovering the true decentralist origins of the United
States. Robert Hawes states the case beautifully for the forgotten decentralist tradition
- which may be our only hope for the preservation of freedom."
Recommended Reading: Secession
Debated: Georgia's Showdown in 1860.
Review: The critical northern antebellum debate matched
the rhetorical skills of Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in an historic argument over the future of slavery in a westward-expanding
America. Two years later, an equally historic
oratorical showdown between secessionists and Unionists in Georgia generated
as much popular interest south of the Mason-Dixon Line, and perhaps had an even more profound immediate effect on the future
of the United States. Continued below...
Lincoln's "Black Republican" triumph in the presidential election of 1860, the United States witnessed ardent secessionist
sentiment in the South. But Unionists were equally zealous and while South Carolina--a
bastion of Disunionism since 1832--seemed certain to secede; the other fourteen slave states were far from decided. In the
deep South, the road to disunion depended much on the actions of Georgia,
a veritable microcosm of the divided South and geographically in the middle of the Cotton South. If Georgia
went for the Union, secessionist South Carolina could be
isolated. So in November of 1860, all the eyes of Dixie turned to tiny Milledgeville, pre-war capital of Georgia, for a legislative confrontation that would help chart the course toward
civil war. In Secession Debated, William W. Freehling and Craig M. Simpson have for the first time collected the seven surviving
speeches and public letters of this greatest of southern debates over disunion, providing today's reader with a unique window
into a moment of American crisis. Introducing the debate and debaters in compelling fashion, the editors help bring to life
a sleepy Southern town suddenly alive with importance as a divided legislature met to decide the fate of Georgia, and by extension,
that of the nation. We hear myriad voices, among them the energetic and self-righteous Governor Joseph E. Brown who, while
a slaveholder and secessionist, was somewhat suspect as a native North Georgian; Alexander H. Stephens, the eloquent Unionist
whose "calm dispassionate approach" ultimately backfired; and fiery secessionist Robert Toombs who, impatient with Brown's
indecisiveness and the caution of the Unionists, shouted to legislators: "Give me the sword! but if you do not place it in
my hands, before God! I will take it." The secessionists' Henry Benning and Thomas R. R. Cobb as well as the Unionists Benjamin
Hill and Herschel Johnson also speak to us across the years, most with eloquence, all with the patriotic, passionate conviction
that defined an era. In the end, the legislature adopted a convention bill which decreed a popular vote on the issue in early
January 1861. The election results were close, mirroring the intense debate of two months before: 51% of Georgians favored
immediate secession, a slim margin which the propaganda-conscious Brown later inflated to 58%. On January 19th the Georgia
Convention sanctioned secession in a 166-130 vote, and the imminent Confederacy had its Southern hinge. Secession Debated
is a colorful and gripping tale told in the words of the actual participants, one which sheds new light on one of the great
and hitherto neglected verbal showdowns in American history. It is essential to a full understanding of the origins of the
War Between the States.
Recommended Reading: Prelude
to Civil War: The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina,
1816-1836. Review: When William Freehling's Prelude to Civil War first appeared in 1965 it was immediately
hailed as a brilliant and incisive study of the origins of the Civil War. Book Week called it "fresh, exciting, and convincing,"
while The Virginia Quarterly Review praised it as, quite simply, "history at its best." It was equally well-received by historical
societies, garnering the Allan Nevins History Prize as well as a Bancroft Prize, the most prestigious history award of all.
Now once again available, Prelude to Civil War is still the definitive work on the subject, and one of the most important
in antebellum studies. It tells the story of the Nullification Controversy in South Carolina, describing how from 1816 to
1836 aristocratic planters of the Palmetto State tumbled from a contented and prosperous life of elegant balls and fine Madeira
wines to a world rife with economic distress, guilt over slavery, and apprehension of slave rebellion. It shows in compelling
detail how this reversal of fortune led the political leaders of South Carolina
down the path to ever more radical states rights doctrines: in 1832 they were seeking to nullify federal law by refusing to
obey it; four years later some of them were considering secession. Continued below…
the story unfolds, we meet a colorful and skillfully drawn cast of characters, among them John C. Calhoun (US Congress, US
Senate, and 7th Vice President), who hoped that nullification would save both his highest priority, slavery, and his next
priority, union; President Andrew Jackson, who threatened to hang Calhoun and lead federal troops into South Carolina; Denmark
Vesey, who organized and nearly brought off a slave conspiracy; and Martin Van Buren, the "Little Magician," who plotted craftily
to replace Calhoun in Jackson's esteem. These and other important figures come to life in these pages, and help to tell a
tale--often in their own words--central to an understanding of the war which eventually engulfed the United States. Demonstrating
how a profound sensitivity to the still-shadowy slavery issue--not serious economic problems alone--led to the Nullification
Controversy, Freehling revises many theories previously held by historians. He describes how fear of abolitionists and their
lobbying power in Congress prompted South Carolina's leaders to ban virtually any public discussion of
the South's "peculiar institution," and shows that while the Civil War had many beginnings, none was more significant than
this single, passionate controversy. Written in a lively and eminently readable style, Prelude to Civil War is must reading
for anyone trying to discover the roots of the conflict that soon would tear the Union apart.