The Civil War Blockade Strategy Board: Third Report
26 July 1861 — ORN, I, volume 12, pages 201–206. ORN (Official records, navies).
Officially known as the Official records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion.
Third Report: ORN, I, vol. 12, pp. 201–206
WASHINGTON, D.C., July 26, 1861.
Honorable GIDEON WELLES,
Secretary of the Navy:
In the last memoir of the conference we had the honor to propose that the Southern Atlantic coast of the United States
should be divided into two sections having distinct geographical and physical features and requiring, therefore, distinct
management. The first of these sections, extending from Cape Henry to Cape
Remain, formed the subject of our last communication. In the present
we shall treat of second section, comprised between Cape Remain
and Cape Florida.
We shall be able to present our views more
clearly if we separate this second section into three subdivisions, each one of which is distinguished from the others by
circumstances either of physical condition or of population too striking to be overlooked. The first of these sections will
extend from Cape Romain to Tybee Island and embraces the greater part of the coast of South Carolina; the second, from Tybee
Island to Cumberland Sound, St. Mary's entrance, Fernandina, covering the whole coast of Georgia, and the third, from Fernandina
to Cape Florida, including St. John's River, the harbor of St. Augustine, and all the east coast of Florida.
Our second memoir, in which we discussed the
occupation of Bali's Bay, St. Helena Sound, and Port Royal Bay, has left us but little to say on the first of these subsections.
The field, which is only 112 miles in linear extent, is one that requires the application of the ordinary rules and practice
of blockade. When the three anchorages above mentioned are secure the whole of this part of our coast will be under complete
control. It will rarely be necessary for the blockading vessels to leave the coast on account of stress of weather. Though
they may be driven from before the ports for a time, it will be easy for them to resume their stations when the storm has
subsided. This is a consideration of the last importance, as regards the efficiency of the blockade.
But you are better aware than ourselves of
the favorable manner in which our foreign political relations would be affected by the possession of one or more of the three
points, the seizure of which was the topic of our second memoir. The second of our subsections, which takes in the whole coast
of Georgia, is of peculiar formation.
Throughout an extent of 107 nautical miles
a chain of islands separates a water space of varying breadth from the open sea, and these islands are divided from each other
by frequent inlets, several of which are available for the purposes of navigation. The islands and the inland waters constitute
a series of sounds and harbors. The former afford uninterrupted smooth-water navigation for steamers drawing 5 feet from the
Savannah to the St. Mary's River; the latter may be regarded
as harbors of refuge, or as openings from the sounds by which an active cruiser can pass at any moment into the ocean and
change its field of observation at convenience. The rivers of the coast generally empty into these interior bays and sounds.
We may complete what we have to say of the navigation of these sounds and bays by observing that it demands the most thorough
local knowledge and an accurate acquaintance with the times and heights of the tides to follow all its circuitous paths, and,
further, that the best pilot information concerning this navigation that can be put on paper is to be found in the "Notes
on the Coast of Georgia," prepared by the Superintendent of the Coast Survey from the archives of his office.
Concerning the islands forming the external
barrier to the sea, it may be remarked, as a general rule, that they have a moderately straight sea beach on the ocean side,
with the common sand hills or hillocks (dunes or downs), and occasionally a fringe of wood. On the inner side, upon the sounds,
they are marshy, except in rare cases. The middle part is much diversified, and cotton plantations are general. Several of
the islands furnish fresh water; but it will be better, perhaps, to treat the whole subject of fresh water supplies on the
Atlantic Southern Seaboard in a separate paper.
The inlets, taken in connection with the interior
navigation, resemble on a smaller scale the peculiar geographical distribution of land and water which, on the coasts of Holland and Belgium
on a grand scale, are especially adapted to the pursuits of commerce and of well sheltered interior water communication. The
example on the coast of Georgia is comparatively minute; but the frequent and convenient entrances from the sea, affording
a protection always accessible, at such easy distances apart that there is little danger or necessity for exposure to the
storms of the ocean, constitute the most important feature as well here as on the eastern border of the North Sea.
The difference in breadth and depth of the
passes between the numerous islands, and of the sounds and bays to which they lead, requires vessels of a smaller draft. The
rivers, or so-called rivers, discharging into these bays and sounds are not always of real value. But a very hasty glance
at these different geographical features, in order, will serve, we think, to satisfy you that the control of these waters
would greatly tend to the reestablishment of the authority of the United
States in the whole of this region by imposing a severe check upon the movements of the rebels.
We will speak first of the inlets and second
of the sounds and rivers together.
The inlets are Tybee (beginning at the north),
Wassaw, Ossabaw, St. Catherine's, Sapelo, Doboy, Altamaha, St. Simon's, St. Andrew's, and Cumberland,
all of which, however, are not equally useful; it is worth while to describe in a few words the most prominent only.
Tybee is the entrance to Savannah River, and
must, for the present, be blockaded, though large vessels could lie safely in the channel inside the outer buoys, and beyond
the reach of the guns of Fort Pulaski,
in smooth weather.
Passing over Wassaw, which is difficult of
entrance, and has not been surveyed, we come to Ossabaw Inlet, 3« miles wide, between Great Wassaw Island on the north and
on the south. Seventeen feet may be carried over the outer bar through a narrow channel which divides inside, where a second
bar, having 14 feet of water upon it, must be passed to enter Ogeechee River. Passing again over St. Catherine's Inlet, of
which the bar is bad, we come to Sapelo Inlet, the entrance to Sapelo Sound, seven-eighths of a mile wide, between St. Catherine's
and Blackbeard islands.
This is one of the easiest entrances on the
Southern coast. The bar, which is very narrow, has 18 feet of water, and it is only necessary to change the course once to
enter the sound. A new channel across this bar, south of the old one, was discovered by the Coast Survey. Breakers, north
and south of the channel, mark the entrance, which was a most convenient one when buoyed.
Doboy Inlet is one of the entrances to Altamaha
Sound and River, and the first through which the town of Darien
is reached. The bar is farther to seaward [or to leeward] than Sapelo Bar, about 4 miles off, and the entrance is more than
a mile wide between Sapelo and Wolf islands.
The depth of water is sufficient (not less
than 24 feet), but the channel is so winding that all the assistance of lights and buoys is wanted to navigate it in safety.
Again, passing over Altamaha Inlet, which is so inferior to Doboy that the latter will always be preferred, we come to St.
Simon's Inlet, the entrance to St. Simon's Sound, leading to Brunswick
and Blythe islands, which is about a mile wide between St. Simon's and Jekyl islands. The bar is 5 miles from the general
line of coast, but is only about one-fourth of a Nile wide, and had upon it a depth of 17
feet at low and about 24 feet at high water; it is one of the best of these openings. Passing again over the entrance to St.
Andrew's Sound, of which the bar is bad, we come to the last of the series, Cumberland Sound, St. Mary's entrance, Fernandina,
which we have described at length in our first memoir on the occupation of Fernandina.
Thus you will perceive from our brief enumeration
that in this extent of coast of but little more than 100 miles there are, exclusive of Tybee, five harbors of refuge, convenient,
well situated, and by no means unequally distributed throughout this short distance.
An equally brief notice of the sounds and
inlets will enable you to form an estimate of the business and navigation which would be brought under control by the military
and naval occupation of these waters and their tributaries. We will take them as they stand in their natural order of position
from north to south.
All that relates to Calibogue Sound and Tybee
entrance must be treated separately, because the possession of them involves the capture of Fort
Pulaski and Savannah.
Wassaw Sound and St. Augustine River [Creek] are next. They
form, in fact, a second entrance into Savannah River, St. Augustine Branch uniting with the main stream 4 miles below Savannah. Steamboats from Savannah to Fernandina, or the St. John's
River, pass out at Wassaw Sound, reentering at Ossabaw or Sapelo; or else they pass by a narrow, tortuous, and shoal channel
through the Romerly Marsh, south of Skiddaway Island, where there is but 3« feet at low water. Vessels are warped through.
Ossabaw Sound.--After entering this sound
the channel divides. The west branch leads into the Great Ogeechee
River, which has a bar of 14 feet; the east, into Vernon River, which has a bar of 12 feet at
the entrance. Deep water is carried up the Vernon River to the bar at the mouth of the Little Ogeechee, on which there is 14 feet of water.
Thirteen feet can be carried up to Montgomery on the Vernon
River, the site of a proposed city, but in fact a plantation. The Ogeechee River heads high up in the State of Georgia and has rich rice plantations upon its banks; there
is 10 feet of water 7 miles up. The so-called Savannah, Albany
and Gulf Railroad, from Savannah south west, crosses the Ogeechee about 26 miles from the Ossabaw
Bar and 15 from Savannah.
St. Catherine's Sound.--Into this sound empty
the Medway, or Sudbury River, which has rice plantations upon its banks and the small village of Sudbury, about 9 miles from
the sea, and also Newport River.
Sapelo Sound is a broad and deep sheet of
water, which receives numerous rivers and arms of the sea, or creeks of no special importance. Sapelo River is merely a continuation of Sapelo
Doboy Sound and the arms of the sea connected
with it occupy a space some 12 miles wide between Sapelo and Altamaha rivers. Darien River
is one of these arms and the old town of Darien, once a place of considerable business, stands on the left hand about 13 miles
from Sapelo light-house. Fifteen feet of water can be carried to Darien.
Altamaha Sound is much interrupted in its
navigation by islands and shoals, but Altamaha River
and its tributaries reach the center of the State, Macon being upon the Ocmulgee,
one of its two principal branches.
St. Simon's Sound and Turtle
River lead to Brunswick and Blythe
Island, purchased by the United
States for the site of a naval depot.
Frederica, Mackay's, and Back rivers, which
are, in fact, arms of the sea or creeks, come in at the eastern head of the sound. Frederica
River is on the main passage between Altamaha and St. Simon's Sound, next to St.
The sound is about 4 miles long and 1 mile
wide. From the bar to Brunswick is about 13 miles and to the
site of the proposed naval depot about 15 miles. The navigation is easy and 3« fathoms can be carried to near the shore of
The Brunswick Railroad now connects with the Savannah, Albany
and Gulf Railroad. It will be remembered that we spoke of St. Simon's as one of the best entrances on the Southern coast,
and we may add that it is specially adapted for a naval depot at this period and for the particular service under consideration.
St. Andrew's Sound receives the Saltilla [Satilla]
River that drains the interior of the southern part of Georgia, from which it receives many tributaries; among them are the
Little Saltilla [Satilla] on the northeast and the Jekyl on the north, or rather the Jekyl Creek, which, running close by
Jekyl Island, forms part of the communication between Savannah and Frederica.
Cumberland Sound, already described in our
first memoir, completes the list.
In the above enumeration we have not included
all the particulars in our possession. We have merely presented a sketch or outline of this region, or, of its means of intercommunication,
and of its fertility; even designed to be, as it is, a mere sketch, it would be incomplete if we were not to repeat at the
conclusion that an inland passage from Savannah to Fernandina, long used by steamboats drawing 5 feet of water, unites in
one common interest and intercourse all the bays, sounds, rivers, and inlets of which we have given but little more than the
names. A superior naval power must command the whole of this division of the coast. It will be occupied by the party or nation,
whichever it may be, that chooses to place armed steamers of suitable draft in its interior waters, and fortifications of
sufficient strength at the mouth of its inlets. And the naval power that commands the coast of Georgia
will command the State of Georgia.
For what would be the means and resources
of the government of the State of Georgia
in the hands of rebels if its peculiar productions could only find a market by passing through the hands of its loyal citizens
holding offices by appointment of the General Government.
Beyond the bars of the inlets, which are at
distances from the land varying from 1 to 5 miles, the exterior seacoast is free from dangers. As a general thing between
4 and 5 fathoms are to be found at from 4 to 6 miles from the land all the way from Tybee to St. Andrew's. Farther south the
slope of the bottom is more steep. And it will serve to give you an idea of the facility with which this coast can be approached
at night and in thick weather to mention that at an average distance of 12 miles the depth is 9 fathoms. At an average distance
of 24 miles the depth is 11 fathoms; at an average distance of 36 miles the depth is 13 fathoms; at an average distance of
48 miles the depth is 15 fathoms, and at an average distance of 60 miles the depth is 17 fathoms.
At the same time the depth is not a uniform
and unfailing test of the distance from the land at every part of the coast; we are speaking of averages only.
Our third subsection extends from Fernandina
to Cape Florida, and embraces the mouth
of the St. John's, the harbor of St.
Augustine, and all the east coast of Florida.
St. John's and St. Augustine
will be blockaded, we presume, in the usual manner.
The lower coast may be placed under the scrutiny
of two or more small cruisers, by which its shores will be continually traversed, and its bays inspected. It can hardly be
said to be inhabited, and is of no great consequence as a convenient place of resort for pirates. Having finished all we have
to say upon the sections and subsections separately, we will offer one or two remarks upon the general blockade of the Southern
Atlantic coast of the United States from Cape Henry to Cape Florida.
In the administration of the military affairs
of the country, it has been found expedient to increase the number and diminish the extent of the military departments, so
also the number of home squadrons has been doubled.
But we have been led in the preparation of
these memoirs to entertain the opinion that it would be advantageous, that it would conduce still further to the efficiency
of the blockade, if each of the two sections into which we have divided this coast were made a naval station and comprised
the limits of a separate command analogous to the military departments. We have aimed to show that these sections possess
distinct geographical features and require distinct treatment, and on those distinctions our opinion mainly rests. But we
may add, that if this plan were adopted, and if vessels were assigned to ports and stations under the common rule of the naval
service, that is, until relieved, then the commander in chief while at sea within the limits of his command could, so short
is the distance, communicate with the whole line of his blockading squadron, either in person or by his tender, every day,
or every two days during ordinary weather.
We have the honor to be, very respectfully,
your most obedient servants,
S. F. DU PONT,
Captain, U. S. Navy,
A. D. BACHE,
Superintendent U. S.
Coast Survey, Member.
J. G. BARNARD,
Major, U. S. Engineers, Member.
C. H. DAVIS,
Commander, U. S. Navy, Member and Secretary.
Reading: Civil War Navies, 1855-1883 (The
U.S. Navy Warship Series) (Hardcover).
Description: Civil War Warships, 1855-1883 is the second in the five-volume US Navy Warships encyclopedia set. This valuable
reference lists the ships of the U.S. Navy and Confederate Navy during the Civil War and the years immediately following -
a significant period in the evolution of warships, the use of steam propulsion, and the development of ordnance. Civil War
Warships provides a wealth and variety of material not found in other books on the subject and will save the reader the effort
needed to track down information in multiple sources. Continued below…
size and time and place of construction are listed along with particulars of naval service. The author provides historical
details that include actions fought, damage sustained, prizes taken, ships sunk, and dates in and out of commission as well
as information about when the ship left the Navy, names used in other services, and its ultimate fate. 140 photographs, including
one of the Confederate cruiser Alabama recently uncovered by the author further contribute to this
indispensable volume. This definitive record of Civil War ships updates the author's previous work and will find a lasting
place among naval reference works.
Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running
During the Civil War (Studies in Maritime
History Series). From Library Journal: From the profusion of books about Confederate blockade running, this one will stand
out for a long time as the most complete and exhaustively researched. …Wise sets out to provide a detailed study, giving
particular attention to the blockade runners' effects on the Confederate war effort. It was, he finds, tapping hitherto unused
sources, absolutely essential, affording the South a virtual lifeline of military necessities until the war's last days. This
book covers it all: from cargoes to ship outfitting, from individuals and companies to financing at both ends. An indispensable
addition to Civil War literature.
Reading: Naval Strategies of the Civil War: Confederate Innovations and Federal Opportunism. Description: One of the most overlooked aspects of the American Civil War is the
naval strategy played out by the U.S. Navy and the fledgling Confederate Navy, which may make this the first book to compare
and contrast the strategic concepts of the Southern Secretary of the Navy Stephen R. Mallory against his Northern counterpart,
Gideon Welles. Both men had to accomplish much and were given great latitude in achieving their goals. Mallory's vision of
seapower emphasized technological innovation and individual competence as he sought to match quality against the Union Navy's
(quantity) numerical superiority. Welles had to deal with more bureaucratic structure and to some degree a national strategy
dictated by the White House. Continued below...
The naval blockade
of the South was one of his first tasks - for which he had but few ships available - and although he followed the national
strategy, he did not limit himself to it when opportunities arose. Mallory's dedication to ironclads is well known, but he
also defined the roles of commerce raiders, submarines, and naval mines. Welles's contributions to the Union effort were rooted
in his organizational skills and his willingness to cooperate with the other military departments of his government. This
led to successes through combined army and naval units in several campaigns on and around the Mississippi River.
Reading: A History of
the Confederate Navy (Hardcover). From
Publishers Weekly: One of the most prominent European scholars of the Civil War weighs in with a provocative revisionist study
of the Confederacy's naval policies. For 27 years, University of Genoa history professor Luraghi (The Rise and Fall of the
Plantation South) explored archival and monographic sources on both sides of the Atlantic to develop a convincing argument
that the deadliest maritime threat to the South was not, as commonly thought, the Union's blockade but the North's amphibious
and river operations. Confederate Navy Secretary Stephen Mallory, the author shows, thus focused on protecting the Confederacy's
inland waterways and controlling the harbors vital for military imports. Continued below…
As a result,
to Savannah to Richmond, major
Confederate ports ultimately were captured from the land and not from the sea, despite the North's overwhelming naval strength.
Luraghi highlights the South's ingenuity in inventing and employing new technologies: the ironclad, the submarine, the torpedo.
He establishes, however, that these innovations were the brainchildren of only a few men, whose work, although brilliant,
couldn't match the resources and might of a major industrial power like the Union. Nor did
the Confederate Navy, weakened through Mallory's administrative inefficiency, compensate with an effective command system.
Enhanced by a translation that retains the verve of the original, Luraghi's study is a notable addition to Civil War maritime
history. Includes numerous photos.
Reading: Naval Campaigns
of the Civil War. Description: This analysis
of naval engagements during the War Between the States presents the action from the efforts at Fort Sumter during the secession
of South Carolina in 1860, through the battles in the Gulf of Mexico, on the Mississippi River, and along the eastern seaboard,
to the final attack at Fort Fisher on the coast of North Carolina in January 1865. This work provides an understanding of
the maritime problems facing both sides at the beginning of the war, their efforts to overcome these problems, and their attempts,
both triumphant and tragic, to control the waterways of the South. The Union blockade, Confederate privateers and commerce
raiders are discussed, as is the famous battle between the Monitor and the Merrimack.
of the events in the early months preceding the outbreak of the war is presented. The chronological arrangement of the campaigns
allows for ready reference regarding a single event or an entire series of campaigns. Maps and an index are also included.
About the Author: Paul Calore, a graduate of Johnson and Wales University,
was the Operations Branch Chief with the Defense Logistics Agency of the Department of Defense before retiring. He is a supporting
member of the U.S. Civil War Center and the Civil War Preservation Trust and has also written Land Campaigns of the Civil
War (2000). He lives in Seekonk, Massachusetts.
Recommended Reading: Submarine Warfare in
the Civil War. Description: Many people have heard of the Hunley, the experimental Confederate submarine
that sank the USS Housatonic in a daring nighttime operation. Less well known, however, is that the Hunley was not alone under
the waters of America during the Civil
War. Both the Union and Confederacy built a wide and incredible array of vessels that could
maneuver underwater, and many were put to use patrolling enemy waters. In Submarine Warfare in the Civil War, Mark Ragan,
who spent years mining factory records and log books, brings this little-known history to the surface. The hardcover edition,
Union and Confederate Submarine Warfare in the Civil War, was published to wide acclaim in
1999. For this new paperback edition, Ragan has revised and updated the text to include the full story of the Hunley's recovery