CHAP. XC.—An Act to establish a Bureau for the Relief of Freedmen
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled, That there is hereby established in the War Department, to continue during the present
war of rebellion, and for one year thereafter, a bureau of refugees, freedmen, and abandoned lands, to which shall be committed,
as hereinafter provided, the supervision and management of all abandoned lands, and the control of all subjects relating to
refugees and freedmen from rebel states, or from any district of country within the territory embraced in the operations of
the army, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the head of the bureau and approved by the President. The
said bureau shall be under the management and control of a commissioner to be appointed by the President, by and with the
advice and consent of the Senate, whose compensation shall be three thousand dollars per annum, and such number of clerks
as may be assigned to him by the Secretary of War, not exceeding one chief clerk, two of the fourth class, two of the third
class, and five of the first class. And the commissioner and all persons appointed under this act, shall, before entering
upon their duties, take the oath of office prescribed in an act entitled "An act to prescribe an oath of office, and for other
purposes," approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and the commissioner and the chief clerk shall, before entering
upon their duties, give bonds to the treasurer of the United States, the former in the sum of fifty thousand dollars, and
the latter in the sum of ten thousand dollars, conditioned for the faithful discharge of their duties respectively, with securities
to be approved as sufficient by the Attorney-General, which bonds shall be filed in the office of the first comptroller of
the treasury, to be by him put in suit for the benefit of any injured party upon any breach of the conditions thereof.
SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That the Secretary of War may direct
such issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel, as he may deem needful for the immediate and temporary shelter and supply of
destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children, under such rules and regulations as he may direct.
SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That the President may, by and with the
advice and consent of the Senate, appoint an assistant commissioner for each of the states declared to be in insurrection,
not exceeding ten in number, who shall, under the direction of the commissioner, aid in the execution of the provisions of
this act; and he shall give a bond to the Treasurer of the United States, in the sum of twenty thousand dollars, in the form
and manner prescribed in the first section of this act. Each of said commissioners shall receive an annual salary of two thousand
five hundred dollars in full compensation for all his services. And any military officer may be detailed and assigned to duty
under this act without increase of pay or allowances. The commissioner shall, before the commencement of each regular session
of congress, make full report of his proceedings with exhibits of the state of his accounts to the President, who shall communicate
the same to congress, and shall also make special reports whenever required to do so by the President or either house of congress;
and the assistant commissioners shall make quarterly reports of their proceedings to the commissioner, and also such other
special reports as from time to time may be required.
SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That the commissioner, under the direction
of the President, shall have authority to set apart, for the use of loyal refugees and freedmen, such tracts of land within
the insurrectionary states as shall have been abandoned, or to which the United States shall have acquired title by confiscation
or sale, or otherwise, and to every male citizen, whether refugee or freedman, as aforesaid, there shall be assigned not more
than forty acres of such land, and the person to whom it was so assigned shall be protected in the use and enjoyment of the
land for the term of three years at an annual rent not exceeding six per centum upon the value of such land, as it was appraised
by the state authorities in the year eighteen hundred and sixty, for the purpose of taxation, and in case no such appraisal
can be found, then the rental shall be based upon the estimated value of the land in said year, to be ascertained in such
manner as the commissioner may by regulation prescribe. At the end of said term, or at any time during said term, the occupants
of any parcels so assigned may purchase the land and receive such title thereto as the United States can convey, upon paying
therefor the value of the land, as ascertained and fixed for the purpose of determining the annual rent aforesaid.
SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That all acts and parts of acts inconsistent
with the provisions of this act, are hereby repealed.
Approved, March 3, 1865.
Source: U.S., Statutes at Large, Treaties, and Proclamations of the United
States of America
Recommended Reading: Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation
and Reconstruction. Description:
In Forever Free, Eric Foner, the leading historian of America's Reconstruction Era,
reexamines one of the most misunderstood periods of American history: the struggle to overthrow slavery and establish freedom
for African Americans in the years before, during, and after the Civil War. Forever Free is extensively illustrated, with
visual essays by scholar Joshua Brown discussing the images of the period alongside Foner's text. (From Publishers Weekly:
Starred Review.) Probably no period in American history is as controversial, as distorted by myth and as "essentially unknown"
as the era of emancipation and Reconstruction, award-winning historian Foner (The Story of American Freedom; Reconstruction;
etc.) argues in this dense, rectifying but highly readable account. His analysis of "that turbulent era, its successes and
failures, and its long-term consequences up until this very day" addresses the debates among historians, corrects the misrepresentations
and separates myth from fact with persuasive data. Continued below…
his work with an overview of slavery and the Civil War and concludes with a consideration of the Civil Rights movement and
the continuing impact of Reconstruction upon the current political scene, a framework that adds to the clarity of his history
of that era, its aftermath and its legacy. Joshua Brown's six interspersed "visual essays," with his fresh commentary on images
from slavery through Reconstruction to Jim Crow, buttress Foner's text and contribute to its accessibility. In his mission
to illuminate Reconstruction's critical repercussions for contemporary American culture, Foner balances his passion for racial
equality and social justice with disciplined scholarship. His book is a valuable, fluid introduction to a complex period.
Recommended Reading: The SLAVE
TRADE: THE STORY OF THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE: 1440 - 1870. School Library
Journal: Thomas concentrates
on the economics, social acceptance, and politics of the slave trade. The scope of the book is amazingly broad as the author
covers virtually every aspect of the subject from the early days of the 16th century when great commercial houses were set
up throughout Europe to the 1713 Peace Treaty of Utrecht, which gave the British the right
to import slaves into the Spanish Indies. The account includes the anti-slavery patrols of the 19th century and the final
decline and abolition in the early 20th century. Continued below...
Through the skillful weaving of numerous official reports, financial documents, and firsthand accounts, Thomas explains
how slavery was socially acceptable and shows that people and governments everywhere were involved in it. This book is a comprehensive
study from African kings and Arab slave traders to the Europeans and Americans who bought and transported them to the New World. Despite the
volatility of the subject, the author remains emotionally detached in his writing, yet produces a highly readable, informative
book. A superb addition and highly recommended.
Recommended Reading: Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World.
Description: Winner of a Pulitzer Prize and a National
Book Award, David Brion Davis has long been recognized as the leading authority on slavery in the Western World. Now, in Inhuman
Bondage, Davis sums up a lifetime of insight in this definitive account of New
World slavery. The heart of the book looks at slavery in the American South, describing black slaveholding planters,
rise of the Cotton Kingdom,
daily life of ordinary slaves, highly destructive slave trade, sexual exploitation of slaves, emergence of an African-American
culture, abolition, abolitionists, antislavery movements, and much more. Continued below…
centered on the United States, the book offers a global perspective spanning four continents. It
is the only study of American slavery that reaches back to ancient foundations and also traces the long evolution of anti-black
racism in European thought. Equally important, it combines the subjects of slavery and abolitionism as very few books do,
and it connects the actual life of slaves with the crucial place of slavery in American politics, stressing that slavery was
integral to America's success as a nation--not
a marginal enterprise. This is the definitive history by a writer deeply immersed in the subject. Inhuman Bondage offers a
compelling portrait of the dark side of the American dream.
Recommended Reading: Reconstruction: America's
Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. Review: This "masterful treatment of one of the most complex periods of American history" (New Republic) made history when it was originally
published in 1988. It redefined how Reconstruction was viewed by historians and people everywhere in its chronicling of how
Americans -- black and white -- responded to the unprecedented changes unleashed by the war and the end of slavery. This "smart
book of enormous strengths" (Boston Globe) has since gone on to become the classic work on the wrenching post-Civil War period
-- an era whose legacy reverberates still today in the United States.
the Author: Eric Foner, DeWitt Clinton Professor
of American History at Columbia University, is the author of numerous
works on American history, including Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil
War; Tom Paine and Revolutionary America; and The Story of American Freedom. He has served as president of both the Organization
of American Historians and the American Historical Association, and has been named Scholar of the Year by the New York Council
for the Humanities.
Reading: A Short History of Reconstruction. Review: In an attempt to document the important issues of reconstruction, Eric Foner compiled
his book Reconstruction: America's Unfinished
Revolution, 1863-1877. Foner addresses all the major issues leading up reconstruction, and then finishing his book shortly
after the end of reconstruction and the election of Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876. In
the preface of his book, Foner discusses the historiography of Reconstruction. He notes that during the early part of the
twentieth century many historians considered Reconstruction as one of the darkest periods of American history. Foner notes
that this viewpoint changed during the 1960s as revisionists shed new "light" on reconstruction. The revisionists saw Andrew
Johnson as a stubborn racist, and viewed the Radical Republicans as "idealistic reformers genuinely committed to black rights."
The author notes that recent studies of reconstruction argue that the Radicals were actually quite conservative, and most
Radicals held on to their racist views and put up very little fight as the whites once again began to govern the south. Continued
describes the African-American experience during the Civil War and Reconstruction. He argues that African-Americans were not
simply figures that took little or no action in the events of the day, and notes the enlistment of thousands of African-Americans
in the Union army during the war. Foner also notes that many of the African-Americans that eventually became civil leaders
had at one time served in the Union Army. He states, "For men of talent and ambition, the army flung open a door to advancement
and respectability." He notes that as reconstruction progressed, African-Americans were the targets of violence and racism. Foner
believes that the transition of slaves into free laborers and equal citizens was the most drastic example of change following
the end of the war. He notes how African-Americans were eventually forced to return to the plantations, not as slaves but
as share croppers, and were thus introduced to a new form of slavery. He argues that this arrangement introduced a new class
structure to the South, and states "It was an economic transformation that would culminate, long after the end of Reconstruction,
in the consolidation of a rural proletariat composed of a new owning class of planters and merchants, itself subordinate to
Northern financiers and industrialists.” The author illustrates how both blacks and whites struggled to use the state
and local governments to develop their own interests and establish their respective place in the evolving social orders. Another
theme that he addresses in this excellent study is racism itself and the interconnection of race and class in the South.
he addresses is the expanded presence of federal authority, as well as a growing idea and commitment to the idea that equal
rights belonged to all citizens, regardless of race. Foner shows how both Northern and Southern blacks embraced the power
to vote, and, as Reconstruction ended, many blacks saw the loss of suffrage and the loss of freedom. Foner illustrates that
because the presence of blacks at the poll threatened the established traditions, corruption increased, which helped to undermine
the support for Reconstruction. The former leaders of the Confederacy were barred from political office, who were the regions
"natural leaders," a reversal of sympathies took place which portrayed the Southern whites as victims, and blacks unfit to
affected the North as well, but argues that it was obviously less revolutionary than it was in the South. Foner notes that
a new group of elites surfaced after the war, industrialists and railroad entrepreneurs emerged as powerful and influential
leaders alongside the former commercial elite. The Republicans in the North did attempt to improve the lives of Northern blacks.
However, there were far fewer blacks in the North, so it was more difficult for blacks to have their agendas and needs addressed
in the local legislatures. He states, "Most Northern blacks remained trapped in inferior housing and menial and unskilled
jobs." Foner adds that the few jobs blacks were able to acquire were constantly being challenged by the huge influx of European
is definitely worthy of his original volume. Reconstruction is a subject that can still be interpreted in several ways, including
the revisionist school of thought. Foner, however, seems to be as objective as possible on this subject, and has fairly addressed
all major issues that apply.